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A Look at Water and Its Contaminants. Water Part B. Physical Properties of Water. Matter anything that occupies space and has mass. Physical Properties of Water. Physical Properties : can be observed or measured without changing the identity of a sample of matter Examples:

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A look at water and its contaminants

A Look at Water and Its Contaminants

Water Part B

Physical properties of water
Physical Properties of Water

  • Matter

    • anything that occupies space and has mass

Physical properties of water1
Physical Properties of Water

  • Physical Properties: can be observed or measured without changing the identity of a sample of matter

  • Examples:

    • Boiling point, melting point, density, color

Physical properties of water2
Physical Properties of Water

  • Density: mass  volume

  • the density of liquid water is 1.00 g/mL

Physical properties of water3
Physical Properties of Water

  • Physical state affects density:

    • gases are much less dense than liquids

    • solid form of a substance is usually denser than its liquid form

    • EXCEPT WATER: As water freezes it occupies a larger volume (d = 0.92 g/mL)

  • the density of liquid water is 1.00 g/mL

Physical properties of water4
Physical Properties of Water

  • clear, odorless, colorless, and tasteless

  • easily changes to each of the three phases of matter

  • “universal solvent”- so many substances easily dissolve in water to make aqueous solutions.

Physical properties of water5
Physical Properties of Water

  • high boiling point 100 C

  • high surface tension

Mixtures and solutions
Mixtures and Solutions

  • Mixture: two or more substances are mixed together and they keep their individual properties

    • Heterogeneous mixture: a mixture that is not uniform throughout

      • Example: Chocolate chip cookie

    • Homogeneous mixture (Solution): a mixture that is uniform throughout

      • Example: Peanut Butter Cookie

Mixtures and solutions1
Mixtures and Solutions

  • Mixtures are classified by size of the particles in the mixture.

Mixtures and solutions2
Mixtures and Solutions

Solution- smallest particle size,

  • salt water

  • Solute- substance that is dissolved

  • Solvent- substance that does the dissolving

  • Kool-Aid

Mixtures and solutions3
Mixtures and Solutions

  • Colloid-medium particle size,

    • Fog

  • Shows the Tyndall Effect light is scattered in many directions and can easily be seen.

  • like seeing dust particles in the light beam of a light

  • Mixtures and solutions4
    Mixtures and Solutions

    • Suspension-largest particle size,

      • medicine that says “shake before using”

    Particulate view of water
    Particulate View of Water

    • Atoms: All matter is composed of atoms; smallest particles possessing the properties of an element

    • Element: matter that is made up of only one kind of atom

    • oxygen is an element because it is composed of only oxygen atoms

    • 90 elements are found in nature!

    Particulate view of water1
    Particulate View of Water

    • Compound: substances composed of two or more elements linked together chemically in fixed proportions

    • water H2O

    • table salt NaCl

    • ammonia NH3

    • baking soda NaHCO3

    • chalk CaCO3

    Symbols formulas equations
    Symbols, Formulas & Equations

    • Chemical Symbols: the international language of chemists and scientists across the planet

    • each element is assigned a symbol

    • the first letter is capitalized; all other letters are lowercase

    • Al, Cl, Ag, Mg

    Symbols formulas equations1
    Symbols, Formulas & Equations

    Subscripts: a number written below which indicates the number of atoms of each element that are present in a substance 

    H2O 2 Atoms of hydrogen

    1 Atom of oxygen

    C3H8 3 Atoms of carbon

    8 Atoms of hydrogen

    Symbols formulas equations2
    Symbols, Formulas & Equations

    • Chemical reactions: creating new substances

    • the new substances have completely different properties than the original substances.

      2H2 + O2 2H2O

      Hydrogen + Oxygen  Water

      Reactants  Products

    Symbols formulas equations3
    Symbols, Formulas & Equations

    • Diatomic molecules: elements that exist as two bonded atoms of the same element

    • H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2 & I2

    • All other elements are written at single atoms (Ca, Fe, Na & Mg)

    The electrical nature of matter
    The Electrical Nature of Matter


    • Atoms have:

      • Protons- positive

      • Electrons- negative

      • Neutrons-neutral (no charge)

    The electrical nature of matter1
    The Electrical Nature of Matter

    • Let’s try

      • An atom has:

        • 15 protons + 15 electrons =

        • 20 protons + 21 electrons =

        • 19 protons + 18 electrons =

        • 10 protons + 12 electrons=

    The electrical nature of matter2
    The Electrical Nature of Matter

    • Opposites attract-

      • this is the glue to hold atoms together

      • These are chemical bonds.

    Ions and ionic compounds
    Ions and Ionic Compounds

    • Ions:

      • charged atoms;

      • atoms that have gained or lost electrons to form negative or positive ions

    • Ionic Compounds: compounds composed of positive and negative ions

    Ions and ionic compounds1
    Ions and Ionic Compounds

    • Cation: a positively charged ion (Na+)

    • Anion: a negatively charged ion (Cl-)

    • Polyatomic ion: (many-atoms) an ions made of two or more bonded atoms (NH4+ or NO3-)

    Ions and ionic compounds2
    Ions and Ionic Compounds

    • Step 1: Write the symbols for the ions side by side, with the positive ion (or most metallic element) first

    • Step 2: Cross over the charge values to give subscripts

    • Step 3: Check the subscripts by making sure the total charge of ions in the compound is zero, simplify

    • Step 4: Write the formula

    Ions and ionic compounds3
    Ions and Ionic Compounds

    • Let’s try: Need to use ion chart

    • zinc oxide

    • aluminum sulfide

    • calcium carbonate

    Ions and ionic compounds4
    Ions and Ionic Compounds

    • Naming Compounds

      • Nomenclature: the method of naming chemical compounds

        1. write the name of the element having a positive charge

        2. add the name of the negative element

        3. the negative element must be modified to end in –ide

    Ions and ionic compounds5
    Ions and Ionic Compounds

    • Let’s try: Use the chart of ions

    • NaI2

    • K2O

    • BaSO4