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SDSS slideshow. COSMOLOGY BASICS. Max Tegmark, MIT. Midsummer holiday, Leksand, Sweden . Max Tegmark University of Pennsylvania. Where I was born and raised . Who are you?. The cosmic plan:. Overview of cosmology theory & observation - 0th order: cosmic expansion history

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COSMOLOGY BASICS

Max Tegmark, MIT



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Max Tegmark

University of Pennsylvania

Where I was born and raised



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The cosmic plan:

  • Overview of cosmology theory & observation

  • - 0th order: cosmic expansion history

  • - 1st order: cosmic clustering history

  • - Observational tools: supernovae, CMB, galaxy clustering, . clusters, lensing, Ly forest, etc

  • - Cosmological parameters

  • Revolutions on the horizon:

  • - Nature of dark energy

  • How will the Universe end? Will it?

  • - Nature of dark matter

  • What is the Universe made of?

  • - Nature of our early universe

  • How did the Universe begin? Did it?

  • - String theory? Multiverse?

  • - 21 cm tomography

L1:

Sarah Church

L2:

Neal Weiner

Sean Carroll, Phil Marshall

Sean Carroll


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Galaxy surveys

Microwave background

Supernovae Ia

THE COSMIC SMÖRGÅSBORD

Gravitational lensing

Big Bang nucleosynthesis

Galaxy clusters

Neutral hydrogen tomography

Lyman  forest








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Brief History of our Universe

Dark matter creation?

Antimatter annihilation

Creation of atomic nuclei

Dark energy evidence

Hot Dense Smooth

400

Cool Rarefied Clumpy

(Graphics from Gary Hinshaw/WMAP team)



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To 0th order:

Fluctuation generator

Fluctuation amplifier

386

Hot DenseSmooth

400

H(z)

Cool Rarefied Clumpy

(Graphics from Gary Hinshaw/WMAP team)

Cosmological functions

(z), G(z,k), Ps(k), Pt(k)


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To 1st order:

Fluctuation generator

Fluctuation amplifier

386

Hot Dense Smooth

400

H(z)

P(k,z)

Cool Rarefied Clumpy

(Graphics from Gary Hinshaw/WMAP team)


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0th order: a(t)

1st order: g(z,k)

(Figure courtesy of COBE team)

400

Higher order: gastrophysics

13.7


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0th order:

Measuring

Expansion:

a(t) <=> H(z)

(More on this in the lectures of Sean Carroll & Phil Marshall)

  • Standardizable candles

  • Standardizable rods

  • Standardizable clocks


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100dpi

Figure from WMAP team


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Distant light is

100dpi


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100dpi

Distant light is

Redshift

Dimming


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100dpi

Distant light is

Redshift

Dimming

Standard candles, rulers or clocks


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Standardizable candles

Boomzoom

(From Saul Perlmutter’s web site)


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Using CMB blobs as a standardizable ruler:

Boomzoom

Open universe

Inflation with 

Guth & Kaiser 2005 (Science) + WMAP3

Inflation without 

Cosmic strings


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Using galaxy correlations as a standardizable ruler:

Boomzoom

(Eisenstein, Hu & MT 1998; Eisenstein et al 2005; Cole et al 2005)

Easiest to understand in real space

(Bashinsky & Bertschinger, PRL, 87, 1301, 2001; PRD 123008, 2002)


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(Eisenstein et al 2005, for the SDSS collaboration astro-ph/050112)

Boomzoom

We’ve measured distance to z=0.35 to 5% accuracy

Updates in Reid et al 0907.1659, Percival et al 0907.1660,

Kazin et al 2009 in prep


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Big Bang nucleosynthesis as a standardizable clock: astro-ph/050112)

George Gamow 1904-1968


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Big Bang nucleosynthesis as a standardizable clock: astro-ph/050112)

George Gamow 1904-1968

Kirkman et al 2003, astro-ph/0302006


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H = astro-ph/050112)dlna/dt, H2  

Assumes k=0

SN Ia+CMB+LSS constraints

Yun Wang & MT 2004, PRL 92, 241302

a = 1/(1+z)



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H = astro-ph/050112)dlna/dt, H2  

What we’ve learned about H(z) from SN Ia, CMB, BAO, BBN, etc:

Assumes k=0

SN Ia+CMB+LSS constraints

Yun Wang & MT 2004, PRL 92, 241302

Vanilla rules OK!


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What we’ve learned about H(z) from SN Ia astro-ph/050112)

Riess et al, astro-ph/0611572


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  • curvature: astro-ph/050112)

  • consistent with vanilla (k = 0)

  • topology:

  • consistent with vanilla



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History astro-ph/050112)

CMB

Foreground-cleaned WMAP map from Tegmark, de Oliveira-Costa & Hamilton, astro-ph/0302496


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z = 1000 astro-ph/050112)

Boomzoom


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z = 2.4 astro-ph/050112)

Boomzoom

Mathis, Lemson, Springel, Kauffmann, White & Dekel 2001


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z = 0.8 astro-ph/050112)

Boomzoom

Mathis, Lemson, Springel, Kauffmann, White & Dekel 2001


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z = 0 astro-ph/050112)

Boomzoom

Mathis, Lemson, Springel, Kauffmann, White & Dekel 2001


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1par astro-ph/050112)movies

CMB

Clusters

LSS

Lensing

Lya

Tegmark & Zaldarriaga, astro-ph/0207047 + updates


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000619 astro-ph/050112)

Galaxy power spectrum measurements 1999

(Based on compilation by Michael Vogeley)


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1par astro-ph/050112)movies

LSS


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1par astro-ph/050112)movies

Clusters

LSS

Tegmark & Zaldarriaga, astro-ph/0207047 + updates


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1par astro-ph/050112)movies

CMB

Clusters

LSS

(More from Sarah Church)

Tegmark & Zaldarriaga, astro-ph/0207047 + updates


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History astro-ph/050112)

(Figure from Wayne Hu)

(Figure from WMAP team)


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History astro-ph/050112)


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History astro-ph/050112)

CMB

Foreground-cleaned WMAP map from Tegmark, de Oliveira-Costa & Hamilton, astro-ph/0302496


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Why are there any astro-ph/050112)

CMB fluctuations at all?



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Using CMB blobs as a standardizable ruler: astro-ph/050112)

Boomzoom

3

Open universe

Inflation with 

Guth & Kaiser 2005 (Science) + WMAP3

Inflation without 

Cosmic strings


1par movies52 l.jpg
1par astro-ph/050112)movies

CMB

Clusters

LSS

Tegmark & Zaldarriaga, astro-ph/0207047 + updates


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1par astro-ph/050112)movies

CMB

Clusters

LSS

Ly

Tegmark & Zaldarriaga, astro-ph/0207047 + updates


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Lyman Alpha Forest Simulation: Cen et al 2001 astro-ph/050112)

Boomzoom

LyF

Quasar

You


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1par astro-ph/050112)movies

CMB

Clusters

LSS

Ly

Tegmark & Zaldarriaga, astro-ph/0207047 + updates


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1par astro-ph/050112)movies

CMB

Clusters

LSS

Lensing

Ly

Tegmark & Zaldarriaga, astro-ph/0207047 + updates


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GRAVITATIONAL LENSING: astro-ph/050112)

A1689 imaged by Hubble ACS, Broadhurst et al 2004


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distortion astro-ph/050112)

Lensing


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1par astro-ph/050112)movies

CMB

Clusters

LSS

Lensing

Ly

Tegmark & Zaldarriaga, astro-ph/0207047 + updates


00061960 l.jpg
000619 astro-ph/050112)

Galaxy power spectrum measurements 1999

(Based on compilation by Michael Vogeley)


1par movies61 l.jpg
1par astro-ph/050112)movies

CMB

Clusters

LSS

Lensing

Lya

Tegmark & Zaldarriaga, astro-ph/0207047 + updates


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But the best is yet to come… astro-ph/050112)

Precision, 21cm tomography, …


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Our observable universe astro-ph/050112)

LSS

Last scattering surface

21cm tomography


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DO ANY OF THESE QUESTIONS CONFUSE YOU? astro-ph/050112)

What is the Universe expanding into?

How can stuff be more than 14 billion light years away when the Universe is only 14 billion light years old?

Where in space did the Big Bang explosion happen?

Did the Big Bang happen at a single point?

How could a the Big Bang create an infinite space in a finite time?

How could space not be infinite?

If the Universe is only 10 billion years old, how can we see objects that are now 30 billion light years away?

Don’t galaxies receeding faster than c violate relativity theory?

Are galaxies really moving away from us, or is space just expanding?

Is the Milky Way expanding?

Do we have evidence for a Big Bang singularity?

What came before the Big Bang?

Should I feel insignificant?

000619


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END OF astro-ph/050112)

LECTURE I


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