6th Grade UBD - Unit 6 - Greek Cultural Achievements Greek Cultural Achievements
Preview • Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle- Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle each developed distinctive philosophies. They were similar to and different from other philosophies. • Achievements of the Ancient Greeks- The ancient Greeks were responsible for many cultural achievements. These influenced societies around them as well as future civilizations. • Alexander the Great- Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire. He spread Greek ideas and culture.
Reach Into Your Background • Plays were an important part of Greek culture. A play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of scripted dialogue between characters that is intended for performance. What are the names of some plays you know about? ( 5 minutes)
Partner Activity • Work with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)
Key Term Amphitheater- A round or oval building, typically unroofed, with a central space for the presentation of dramatic events.
Key Idea- Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle • The philosophies of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle greatly influenced political and cultural life in ancient Greece. These philosophies were passed on through the ages. They influenced leaders throughout Western history.
The Golden Age of Greece • During the classical period of ancient Greece (about 479–323 BCE), philosophy, literature, architecture, and sculpture flourished. • As a result, this period came to be known as the Golden Age of Greece.
The Golden Age of Greece • Philosophy, the search for wisdom became an important part of life in Athens. • Greeks built palaces and temples that still stand. The influence of their architecture and sculpture can be seen in many modern buildings and works of art.
Socrates Video- Socrates
Key Term Socrates- Aancient Greek philosopher who lived in Athens during its Golden Age teacher of Plato.
Key Term Socratic Method- Amethod of teaching by question and answer; used by Socrates.
Socrates • Socrates, the famous Greek philosopher and teacher, developed a method of teaching that involved asking questions and engaging people in debate. • This approach came to be called the Socratic method.
Socrates • Over the years, Socrates attracted many followers. • However, his teaching often opposed commonly held beliefs of Greek society and offended powerful Athenians.
Socrates • Eventually, Socrates was tried in court, convicted of treason, and executed. • Socrates did not write down his own ideas, but many of his followers wrote about him and his teachings. • These writings influenced many thinkers throughout the ages.
Plato Video- Plato
Key Term Plato- Ancient Athenian philosopher; pupil of Socrates; teacher of Aristotle.
Plato • Plato was Socrates’s most important student. • He established a school called the Academy that provided instruction in mathematics, science, and philosophy.
Plato • He also wrote a series of dialogues, which often depicted Socrates debating moral and ethical issues. • These works criticized popular views on concepts like justice, courage, and moderation.
Plato • One of Plato’s most famous dialogues is a work called the Republic, which describes an ideal state.
Key Term Aristotle- One of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers; pupil of Plato; teacher of Alexander the Great.
Aristotle • Plato also had a famous student, Aristotle, who analyzed the process of logical thinking and wrote books on many topics, including forms of government.
Aristotle • Aristotle thought that monarchies, aristocracies, and democracies all had serious flaws. • Because of this, he reasoned that a constitutional monarchy would work best. • With this type of government, a constitution limits the power of the monarch.
Key Ideas- Achievements of the Ancient Greeks • The ancient Greeks developed the first version of democracy. • The ancient Greeks developed a complex mythology. It shaped Roman mythology. • The Olympic Games began in ancient Greece. • The Greek language forms the basis of many English words. • Homer wrote the epic poems the Iliad and Odyssey. • Greek drama included comedy and tragedy.
Science and City Planning Video- Science and City Planning
Achievements of the Ancient Greeks • Ancient Greek thinkers were not just philosophers. For generations, Greeks had traded with many civilizations. They traded with Egyptians, Phoenicians, Mesopotamians, and others. • From these groups, the Greeks adopted an alphabet. They made coins. They learned innovations. As Greek influence grew, Greek ideas led to innovations in other societies. These ideas spread throughout the region.
Math • Pythagoras, a mathematician and philosopher, developed what has come to be called the Pythagorean Theorem, an important and well-known mathematical equation.
Pythagorean Theorem • This famous equation, a2 + b2 = c2, shows the relationship between the sides of a right triangle. • It is still used in geometry today. • People use it to calculate everything from the heights of tall buildings to the diagonal on a TV screen.
Key Term Hippocrates- Medical practitioner who is regarded as the father of medicine; author of the Hippocratic oath.
Science • Hippocrates was a doctor who lived during the Classical period. • He studied the causes of diseases and their possible cures. • He also wrote about the roles and responsibilities of doctors to their patients.
Science • In one work, Hippocrates wrote an oath. Those who took the oath swore to protect patients from harm. They swore to live an ethical life.
Science • Today, doctors still make a similar pledge. It is called the Hippocratic Oath. • They make this pledge before they are licensed to practice medicine.
Architecture • One of the best examples of Greek architecture is the Parthenon, a temple dedicated to the goddess Athena. • Ancient Greek architecture has had a significant impact on Western architecture.
Art • During the classical period, the ancient Greeks also developed sculptures that were natural and lifelike.
Greek Mythology Video- Greek Mythology
Key Term Mythology- The study of myths, legends, or folk tales.
Mount Olympus Video- Mount Olympus
Religion in Ancient Greece • The ancient Greeks practiced polytheism, or the belief in many gods. • They believed in 12 major gods and goddesses, known as the Olympians.
Religion in Ancient Greece • The Greeks also believed that their gods and goddesses could speak through certain human priests and priestesses known as oracles.
Religion in Ancient Greece • The Greeks consulted these oracles for advice in making decisions. • The Greeks thought that their gods and goddesses were involved in their daily lives and sometimes controlled events.
Religion in Ancient Greece • Ancient Greek religious beliefs also informed their myths, or stories about heroes and gods that explained the world around them and human behavior.
Religion in Ancient Greece • The mythology of ancient Greece impacted other societies in its own time, and still influences world literature today.
The Olympics • The ancient Greeks created the Olympics, an athletic competition that was part of a religious festival honoring the god Zeus. • At first, the games only involved running a race. Later, other events were added, including longer races, javelin throwing, and jumping.
The Olympics • After Rome conquered Greece, the Romans banned the games in 393 CE. • However, they were revived in 1896 with the first modern Olympic games in Athens. • Since then, the Games have become one of the most important international athletic events in the world.
Language and Literature • Literature was an important element of Greek culture. • The ancient Greeks wrote many types of literature but were most well known for their poetry and drama.
Language and Literature • The poet Homer is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems. The ancient Greeks also wrote plays, including tragedies and comedies.
Key Term Epic- Along narrative poem that describes heroic deeds. It can be either written or oral.
Language and Literature • The Greek language has had a significant impact on English. • Many English words are derived from Greek words.
Language and Literature • English also uses Greek word parts to create words that did not exist in ancient Greek, such as telephone and telescope (using the Greek prefix tele-, which means farseeing).
Key Ideas- Alexander the Great • Alexander the Great won a series of victories over the Persian army. He gained control of the Persian Empire. • Alexander helped the cultural exchange between the Macedonians and the Persians. • Alexander conquered lands in Asia. The conquests of Alexander spread Greek ideas and culture throughout these lands. • The conquests of Alexander caused Greek and Asian cultures to mix.
Alexander the Great Video- Alexander the Great