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URGENT STEPS TO THE SUMMIT. BUILDING THE GTRP FROM National Tiger Recovery Priorities and global support programs. NTRP Synthesis Matrix. NTRP Synthesis Matrix. Continue Working in Tandem, Seek 100% Completion and Maintain Selectivity

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build on progress yesterday

Continue Working in Tandem, Seek 100% Completion and Maintain Selectivity

  • Enshrine Most Desired Policy Support Actions in Declaration and Pledges:
      • Making Core Breeding Areas/Corridors Inviolate
      • Wildlife Law Reforms
      • Balancing development & conservation: legally establishing sound sectoral policies.
      • Empowering Communities
      • Payment for eco-services/valuation of landscapes.
Build on progress yesterday
build on progress yesterday1

Enshrine Primary Cross Boundary Actions In Declaration and Pledges.

      • Arresting Illegal Trade.
      • Eliminating Demand.
      • Joint Management of Priority Shared Landscapes
  • Enshrine Key Institutional Development Concepts in Declaration and Pledges.
      • Shift focus from Production Forestry to Conservation.
      • Create Specialized Wildlife Conservation Units
      • Professionalize Protection & Monitoring Units.
      • Unify Approach to Wildlife Crime.
Build on progress yesterday
build on progress yesterday2

Better Harmonize Costing

    • Review Huge Range, Eliminate Major Outliers
        • Landscapes: 8 TRC; 80% in 2.
        • Law Enforcement: 10 TRC; 60% in 2.
        • Prof Mgmt: 9 TRC; 60% in 3.
        • Cap Build: 7 TRCs;70% in 1.
    • Normalize Time Horizon (2 to 12) to 5 years.
    • Standardize Recurrent v/s Capital.
  • Ensure at least 60% Self Financing.
Build on progress yesterday
develop gti match making system

South Asia: IDA Regional project on wildlife illegal trade and capacity building.

Capitalize on China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar, Cambodia, Russia, Vietnam “Interest” in GEF5.

Continue to interest Partners in NTRPs & GSPs: Facilitate Preparation and avoid Duplication.

Develop Gti “match making” system
urgent steps to summit

Harmonize NTRP Costing………………GTI Sectt.

  • “Projectize” GSPs……………GSP Block Leaders
  • Implement Key Policy Actions………………TRCs.
    • Finalize National Pledges.
    • Finalize Summit Declaration.
  • Define “Match Making” System…Finance Team.
  • Review Draft GTRP Document….GTI Sectt/TRCs
  • Brief Partners/GEF Again…………………GTI Sectt.

There is still time to do this!!

urgent steps to summit

$12M; 3 Priority Actions in NTRP

Institutional Strengthening

Tiger Human Conflict & Community Engagement

Controlling Illegal Trade

Scientific Monitoring

bangladesh institutional strengthening

A dedicated institution for wildlife conservation and management with appropriate training and logistical support.

Go from production forestry to conservation within FD with organizational change, clear vision and objectives across all layers of staff

Cost: Staffing, incentives and risk insurance US$ 1 million; Infrastructure 4 million

Bangladesh: Institutional Strengthening
bangladesh tiger human conflict

Conflict Tiger Response Teams to: respond and monitor conflict and problem tiger presence; compensation for depredations; insurance support.

Awareness programs to: encourage safer behavior inside forest; need for tiger, prey and habitat conservation; stigmatize poaching and consumption; link AIG to conservation

Community-led anti-poaching teams, crime reporting system, and monitoring

Cost: US$ 1 million (anti-poaching and conflict mitigation)

Continue to Community Engagement Slide

Bangladesh: Tiger Human Conflict
bangladesh community engagement and stewardship

AIG linked to wildlife and healthy habitats to: reduce the dependency on forest products; minimize activity in forests, reducing potential for conflict and habitat degradation.

Forest co-management committees to build forest management partnerships between local communities and the FD for local community stewardship

Update co-management guidelines, policy, and rules.

Cost: US$ 1 million for community stewardship and forest management; US$ 6 million for AIG

Bangladesh:Community Engagement and Stewardship
bangladesh controlling illegal trade

Create a mechanism for trans-boundary collaboration to curb cross-border poaching, smuggling and trade of tigers/parts and other wildlife.

Inter-Ministerial Policy decisions to strengthen collaboration with the police, coast guard and local administrations.

Include wildlife crime in cross border law enforcement MOU between Bangladesh and India

Cost: US$ 7 million for protection logistics (includes mobility/patrolling, communication, monitoring/MIST)

Bangladesh:Controlling Illegal Trade
bangladesh scientific monitoring

Recruit and train wildlife conservation cadre with logistical support for patrolling and monitoring. (fast boats, fuel allowances, communication devices, guard posts and housing with essential facilities; training in MIST, radio-tracking)

Coordination with police, coast-guard, local administration, local communities, and media.

Cost: US$ 7 million for protection logistics (includes mobility/patrolling, communication, monitoring/MIST)

Bangladesh:Scientific Monitoring

$6M, 4 Priority Actions in NTRP

Controlling Habitat Encroachment

Institutional Strengthening

Tiger Human Conflict & Community Engagement

Scientific Monitoring

bhutan controlling habitat encroachment fragmentation

A proactive assessment of planned/proposed infrastructure and climate change-related impacts on intact habitat, especially corridors.

Appropriate policy to discuss, develop, coordinate, and implement mitigations with line agencies and ministries.

Cost: Classifying and zoning tiger landscape US $1.5 million (includes boundary marking)

Bhutan:Controlling Habitat Encroachment & Fragmentation
bhutan institutional strengthening

Better linkages among the different units (Division and National Parks) of the Department of Forests and Park Services (DoFPS) and clear conservation mandates.

Recruit and train additional staff dedicated to wildlife conservation in monitoring, PA management.

Strengthen DoFPS partnerships with other relevant government sectors (law enforcement agencies, national environment commission, UWICE, NRTI, NGO, Local communities, BTFEC, etc.)

Cost: Enhancing institutional capacity of DoFPS US$ 1.3 million

Bhutan: Institutional Strengthening
bhutan tiger human conflict

Community-based livestock insurance programs.

Human wildlife coexistence education and awareness programs.

Cost: included in AIGs and other incremental costs.

Continue to Community Engagement Slide

Bhutan: Tiger-Human Conflict
bhutan community engagement and stewardship

Community participation & engagement through community forestry in appropriate management zones in protected areas and corridors to facilitate conservation and protection.

AIGs and PES as compensation for opportunity costs associated with living in tiger conservation areas.

Joint anti-poaching programs and intelligence networks with communities.

Decentralization/co-management policies to involve local communities and institutions.

Cost: US$ 2 million and incremental costs by other donors in sustainable livelihoods and PES

Bhutan: Community Engagement and Stewardship
bhutan scientific monitoring

Scientifically defensible nationwide baseline and monitoring system to track status of tiger population and progress towards goal.

Cost: nationwide monitoring program for tigers and prey, US$ 1 million (5 years)

Bhutan: Scientific Monitoring

$3.5 M; 4 Priority Actions in NTRP

Controlling Habitat Encroachment

Controlling Prey and Tiger Poaching

Institutional Strengthening

Controlling Illegal Trade

Reducing Demand

Scientific Monitoring

cambodia controlling habitat encroachment fragmentation

At least one inviolate source site secured and zoned to create a ‘safe haven’ for future re-introduction and restoration of wild tigers in Cambodia

Design and implement awareness raising-program for the tiger source site.

Sub-decree to legally designate inviolate source site.

Inter-ministerial cooperation and coordination to ensure sustainable management of land-use across the Eastern Plains Landscape.

Cambodia: Controlling Habitat Encroachment & Fragmentation
cambodia controlling prey and tiger poaching

Adequate, effective patrols and law enforcement, with operational resources, to prevent hunting of tiger and prey species, logging and other land clearance, and human disturbance

monitor law enforcement and management effectiveness in potential source sites

Cambodia: Controlling Prey and Tiger Poaching
cambodia institutional strengthening

Forestry Administration (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) and General Department of Administration for Nature Conservation ad Protection (Ministry of Environment) will establish and resource at least 50 full-time, dedicated, well-trained and equipped law enforcement officers to secure inviolate tiger habitats

Cambodia: Institutional Strengthening
cambodia reducing demand

Greater awareness of threats and improved perception of conservation value of tigers among local communities.

Cambodia: Reducing Demand

Habitat Conservation

Capacity Building

Control Poaching

Engagement of Local Communities

Control Wildlife Trade

china habitat conservation

Habitat and pray population restoration, including hunting bans in tiger areas

Connectivity between core areas

Prepare pilot sites for release of captive bred Amur tigers

Cost $1,000,000

China:Habitat Conservation
china capacity buiding

Strengthen conservation and monitoring of tiger populations and habitats

Improve infrastructure, including monitoring stations where lacking and replenish equipment

Cost $500,000

China:Capacity Buiding
china control poaching

Staff training to enforce hunting ban and stop poaching; research to understand tiger ecology for conservation

Cost included in 0.7 Million for enforcement

China: Control Poaching
china engagement of local communities

Socio-economic development of local communities for conservation support

Compensation mechanism for wildlife depredation and mitigation of crop damage

Awareness programs for tiger protection

China: Engagement of Local communities
china control wildlife trade

law enforcement over smuggling and illegal trade of tiger products

  • Strengthen staff of regional law enforcement agencies, with logistical support
  • Propaganda and education to guide public to resist using tiger products
  • International seminars, international professional training and friendly natural reserves will be used to strengthen tiger conservation and experiences exchange to promote joint enhancement of conservation management
  • Artificial reproduction of tigers are under strict supervision with permits system
  • Cost $700,000
China: Control wildlife trade

Habitat Protection

Capacity Building

Community Engagement

Control Trade

india habitat protection

Securing tiger habitat from encroachment and economic development

  • Core areas free from development and anthropogenic impacts
  • Buffer zones and corridors for functional landscapes
  • Protect tiger/prey base from poaching through smart patrolling
India: Habitat Protection
india capacity buiding

Scientific adaptive management tools in tiger conservation

  • Robust mechanisms for monitoring progress towards achieving goals
  • Institutional framework to provide training to frontline staff and build capacity
  • System for performance-based management assessment and incentives
India: Capacity Buiding
india community engagement

Link sustainable livelihood support to tiger conservation

Minimize tiger-human conflict

Improved field delivery system to efficiently converge economic returns from line departments

India: Community Engagement
india control trade

Enforcement of laws and follow up on wildlife crimes

Sensitize criminal justice system on wildlife crimes

Improve trans-boundary collaboration on illegal wildlife trade issues

India: Control Trade

$20M, 4 Priority Actions

Controlling Habitat Encroachment

Institutional Strengthening

Tiger Human Conflict & Community Engagement

Controlling Illegal Trade

Reducing Demand

Scientific Monitoring

indonesia controlling habitat encroachment fragmentation

Secure source sites and maintain landscape integrity by mapping concession areas for connectivity, with and legal backing to protect tiger habitat outside of protected areas

Integrate source sites into park management plans; priority landscapes into provincial and district spatial planning.

Legally binding protocols for best management practices of forest industry land uses to ensure contribution to tiger conservation

Cost: US$ ~ 1.26 million to mainstream tiger and habitat protection through National Development Program and create a legal basis to protect tiger habitat outside of protected areas.

Indonesia: Controlling Habitat Encroachment & Fragmentation
indonesia institutional strengthening

Add 30 well-equipped Species Protection Units

Create well-trained Elite Investigation group (100 staff) within the Ministry of Forestry to investigate wildlife law infringement investigations.

Establish national tiger advisory board with Ministerial decree

Cost: included in conflict mitigation, trade control, and landscape planning

Indonesia: Institutional Strengthening
indonesia tiger human conflict

A comprehensive strategy for human-tiger conflict mitigation with practical guidelines for animal handling, transportation, translocation, release, and euthanasia.

  • Establish three Rescue Teams for capturing, pre-conditioning, and relocating problem tigers
  • Establish Conflict Mitigation Coordinating Team in provincial level and Response Unit at district level to address human-tiger conflict.
  • Programmatic trainings on human-tiger conflict mitigation techniques and tiger conservation in general for UPT PHKA, local government officers, general public, and other relevant institutions.
  • Cost: US$ ~8.4 million.
Indonesia: Tiger Human Conflict
indonesia controlling illegal trade

Replicate specialized tiger law enforcement and conflict mitigation units.

Upgrade legal basis for arresting suspected poachers with higher penalties

Establish high-level inter-agencies command unit (Police, Customs, Justice, Interpol, UNODC, and WCO) to interdict and prosecute wildlife traders operating across state and national boundaries

Indonesia: Controlling Illegal Trade
indonesia reducing demand

Obtain commitment of countries involved in international trade of tiger, its parts and derivatives to stop.

Cost: US$ 100,000

Indonesia: Reducing Demand
indonesia scientific monitoring

Robust system to monitor trends of tiger and prey populations for adaptive management in priority landscapes.

Patrolling capacity for MIST and spatial monitoring framework in priority landscapes.

Cost: US$ ~ 6.1 million

Indonesia: Scientific Monitoring
lao pdr

Adopt law enforcement and tiger monitoring standards

Habitat protection

Scientific surveys and monitoring

Capacity building

lao pdr adopt law enforcement tiger monitoring standard

Standardize use of MIST and tiger monitoring in protected areas and across projects

Installation of MIST and staff training

Cost: US$0.24 million

Lao PDr: Adopt law enforcement & tiger monitoring standard
lao pdr habitat protection

Establish inviolate core zone at Nam Et PhouLouey NPA

  • Habitat establish and maintain connectivity between other neighboring TCLs
  • Manage land concessions and infrastructure development in TCLs to comply with PA management plans and zoning
  • Ensure cross-sectoral compliance with PA TPZs and corridors
  • Cost: US$12.5 million
LAO pdr: habitat protection
lao pdr scientific survey and monitoring

Confirm that tigers are present or absent in all Tiger Conservation Landscapes (TCLs)

Conduct scientific surveys in all TCLs by 2020

Make core area of TCLs where tigers are confirmed inviolate from human activities

Cost: US$0.7 million for surveys

LAO pdr: scientific survey and monitoring
lao pdr capacity building

Capacity building in DoFI, , customs staff, border staff, economic police and CITES MA and SA (training, equipment)

  • Establish Lao WEN
  • Establish a Prime Minister’s Commission on Endangered Species and under the PM Commission (housed in the PM Environment Committee) and under MAF create a Tiger Taskforce
  • Cost: US$ 0.5 million
Lao pdr: capacity building

Strengthen law enforcement in and around the core tiger habitats

Enhance landscape connectivity

Science-based monitoring

Capacity building

malyasia strengthen law enforcement

Strengthen enforcement teams (more patrol teams; greater empowerment under new and existing federal laws)

Strict enforcement of wildlife and wildlife trade laws

Cost: US$ 6 million

Malyasia: strengthen law enforcement
malaysia enhance landscape connectivity

Priority areas strictly protected, expanded, or sustainably managed.

Ecologically sound land use compatible with tiger conservation outside the strict protected areas

Sustainable financing mechanism to mitigate human-tiger conflict.  

Linkages and smart infrastructure to facilitate wildlife crossing with monitoring

Cost: US$ 20 million

Malaysia: Enhance landscape connectivity
malaysia science based monitoring

Science-based occupancy/density surveys of tigers and prey

Research to inform conservation and management in multiple-land use landscapes

Institutionalize mechanism in Ministry to coordinate and monitor the development, maintenance, and functioning of corridors for tiger movement

Malaysia: Science-based monitoring
malaysia capacity buidling

Control organized wildlife crimes Malaysia.

Multi-agency coordination.

Strengthen and improve transnational cooperation (Singapore, Indonesia, and Thailand) and with ASEAN WEN to curb trade in tigers and parts.

Enhance informant networks at local level.

Cost: included in strengthening law enforcement in and around the core tiger habitats

Malaysia: Capacity Buidling

Habitat Protection


Scientific monitoring

Institutional strengthning

myanmar habitat protection

Landscapes with appropriate extensions and corridors legally protected

Tiger surveys in unprotected areas around both TCLs

Nominate important tiger areas for legal protection

Integrate “ Tiger conservation” as a priority in the development agenda of the government

Cost $US 0.3 million

Myanmar: habitat protection
myanmar poaching

Capacity building: more FD staff in wildlife conservation and law enforcement, monitoring techniques, field equipment, funds for operations, infrastructure, and maintenance

Increase patrolling and integrate with database (e. g MIST) for effective management

Review of existing development policies to strengthen support for Tiger Conservation, with increased penalties for tiger related offences

Cost $US 3.0 million

Myanmar: poaching
myanmar scientific monitoring

Establish baseline for tiger and tiger prey species using standardized monitoring protocols

Implement MIST across both Tiger landscapes

Cost $US 2.0 million

Myanmar: Scientific monitoring
myanmar institutional strengthing

Improved national and trans-boundary cooperation

Improved national policies to support Tiger conservation

Transboundary dialogue and agreements with India, Thailand, and China for cooperation on tiger and wildlife crimes

Cost $US 0.7 million

Myanmar: institutional strengthing


Population and habitat conservation

Sustainable financing

Capacity buiding

Building local community stewardship for conservation

nepal policy

Amend the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act and Forest Act, with relevant regulations, and enactment of a Landscape Level Conservation Policy for effective conservation and management of the TAL.

  • Establish and empower National Tiger Conservation Committee (NTCC).
  • Place TAL conservation as a high-profile feature in the political agenda.
  • Effective transboundary cooperation with India and China.
  • Cost: US$ ~ 0.2 million
Nepal: Policy
nepal population habitat conservation

Protect core areas, corridors, and buffer zones, including several transboundary corridors

Periodic, structured population monitoring using camera-trapping and occupancy surveys at 3 year intervals.

Strengthen anti-poaching mechanisms: in PAs with highly-mobile patrol teams; MIST, Intelligence netoworks and community-based teams.

Assess all large economic and development projects planned in the TAL for impact on tigers, prey, and habitat.

Cost: US$ ~ 16 million

Nepal: population & habitat conservation
nepal sustainable financing

Create a Tiger Conservation Fund as a source of sustainable:

    • Carbon-related funds (from REDD+, biogas, carbon credits for forest restoration, and financial offsets from smart infrastructure) for tiger and tiger habitat conservation and management.
    • National and international cooperation for payments for water and other hydrological services from the river system to support tiger conservation in the TAL.
  • Cost: US$ 0.5 million for developing strategy
Nepal: sustainable financing
nepal capacity building

Form and empower: Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) and South Asia Wildlife Enforcement Network (SAWEN) to reduce poaching and to control transnational trade in tigers and tiger-parts.

  • Adequate human resources/ capacity in the field and centre for research, smart patrolling, intelligence, judiciary procedures (e.g., scene of crime).
  • Infrastructure related to park and forest management and patrolling
  • Cost: US$ 19 million (includes 15 million for infrastructure)
Nepal: capacity building
nepal building local community stewardship for conservation

Public awareness programs and rapid-response teams to reduce/alleviate conflict

Integrated/alternative livelihood programs related to, and compatible with tiger habitat conservation, as compensation for opportunity costs and elicit conservation stewardship.

Payments for conservation of ecological/environmental services and conservation offsets to local communities.

Cost: US$ ~ 7 million + other funding

Nepal: building Local communitystewardship for conservation
russian federation

Trade control

Habitat conservation

Amur tiger population studies and monitoring

Human-tiger conflict prevention and settlement

Russian federation
russia trade control

Establish trans-boundary reserves for cross-border tiger and other wildlife movement

International coordination actions to suppress smuggling of Amur tiger products.

Require legal policies to prevent people advertising tiger skins for sale and buy products on the internet

Cost: US$ 1 million

Russia: Trade control
russia habitat conservation

Strengthened protected area network connected with ecological corridors and with protection zones restricting natural resource use on land adjacent to Pas.

Expand the area of the existing nature reserves and national parks in the Amur tiger range.

Public support to PAs to backup their inspection teams, including salary increases and logistical support

Policy and laws to prohibiting logging Korean pine trees and restricting the cutting of oak trees

Cost US$ 32 million

Russia: habitat conservation
russia amur tiger monitoring

International cooperation for technological and knowledge transfers and research

Improved monitoring and surveys methods following the Guidelines for Amur Tiger Counts in the Russian Federation as approved by the MNR in its Order # 63 of March 15, 2005.

Policy to improve and increase prey capacity through economic incentives for game management units

Cost US$ 6 million

Russia: Amur tiger & monitoring
russia human tiger conflict settlement

Awareness programs to avoid conflict situations

Radio- track monitoring of Amur tigers;

Good performance of Tiger Special Inspection Program (a federal institution) under the Conflicting Tiger Component

Amur Tiger Recovery Centre as temporary shelter and care to rehabilitate problem tigers

Cost US$ 4 million

Russia: human-tiger conflict & Settlement
russia public awareness education

Targeted PR campaigns for various social groups living in the Amur tiger habitats

Preserve and promote traditional knowledge, rituals and customs aimed at conserving and respecting the Amur tiger

Promote sustainable nature resource management practices for tiger and prey conservation

Tougher laws and punishments for illegal trade in Amur tigers and publicize negative connotations of tiger poaching

Cost US$ 2 million

Russia: Public awareness & education

Control illegal trade and poaching

Capacity building

Scientific monitoring

Community engagement

Sustainable financing

thailand control illegal trade poaching

Strengthen and standardize direct conservation action and enforcement

  • MIST-based and Smart Patrol Systems to secure the tigers in Tenasserim-WEFCOM and DP-KY Landscape from poaching.
    • Establish wildlife crime units outside the priority landscapes to reduce demands of wild meat
    • Cost: US$ 83.4 million (Govt contribution $ 49.1 million; external $ 34.3million) over 5 years
Thailand: control illegal trade & poaching
thailand capacity buiding

Use HKK as the center to train officers and park rangers for country and region in research, patrolling, and other capacity building

Cost: US$ 2.2 million (Govt contribution $ 0.7 million; external $ 1.5 million) over 5 years

Thailand: capacity buiding
thailand scientific monitoring

Use up-to-date techniques to annually or regularly monitor trends of tigers and prey (camera trapping, transect and distance sampling, occupancy survey etc) in Tenasserim-WEFCOM and DP-KY Landscape and other landscapes.

Tiger ecology studies to understand the home-range and habitat use of tigers in the two landscapes.

Cost: partially included in conservation action budget of US$ 83.4 million

Thailand: scientific monitoring
thailand community engagement

Promote education, awareness, and public participations

Tiger focused education and awareness campaigns in communities around the two priority landscapes.

Create platforms or projects (e.g., ecotourism) for concrete public participations through protected area and community committees

Cost: US$ 7.0 million (Govt contribution $ 1.7 million; external $ 5.3 million) over 5 years

Thailand: community engagement
thailand sustainable financing

Create long-term financial support within the government budget by giving tiger conservation and recovery a national priority and pride.

Seek collaborations and opportunities at the international level for large scale and long-term international funding sources.

Thailand: sustainable financing

$83.5; 6 Priority Actions in NTRP

Controlling Habitat Encroachment

Controlling Prey and Tiger Poaching

Institutional Strengthening

Controlling Illegal Trade

Reducing Demand

Scientific Monitoring

vietnam controlling habitat encroachment fragmentation

Priority sites for tiger conservation officially recognized and management and protection strengthened to prevent further habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation

With Lao and Cambodia, conduct feasibility studies and create trans-boundary protected areas for tigers (across from Yok Don, Chu Mom Ray and Bu Gia Map)

Vietnam: Controlling Habitat Encroachment & Fragmentation
vietnam institutional strengthening

Increase management capacity of protected areas with adequate investment for wildlife conservation, better collaboration with local stakeholders, and incentives to protect wildlife.

Train enforcement officers—rangers, police, customs and border security—to combat (transboundary) wildlife crime

Vietnam: Institutional Strengthening
vietnam controlling illegal trade

Prevention, detections and suppression of organized tiger and wildlife crimes is significantly strengthened.

Vietnam Interpol NCB to dismantle trans-boundary criminal networks illegally trafficking tigers into Vietnam; prosecution of traders (involving the regional and national Interpol Environmental Crimes officers and ASEAN-WEN)

Implement strict and effective management of captive tiger facilities with strategic conservation-breeding plans and transparent monitoring; immediate punishment for those found trading from captive tiger facilities; close such facilities where trading has occurred..

Vietnam: Controlling Illegal Trade
vietnam reducing demand

Prohibit the promotion of use of tigers and other endangered species in traditional medicine (e.g. remove from pharmacopoeias, official training curricula and documents) and promote alternative products instead.

Clear government policy to prohibits breeding tigers for commercial profit.

Program of innovative behavior change campaigns to reduce demand for tiger and tiger prey products and derivatives.

Vietnam: Reducing Demand