Chapter 7
1 / 14

Chapter 7: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

Chapter 7:. Anxiety Disorders: Specific Phobia, Panic Disorder, Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. What is anxiety?. Activation of the “fight or flight” response. Associated with a variety of internal sensations. An adaptive and future-oriented process.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 7:' - landry

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter 7 l.jpg

Chapter 7:

Anxiety Disorders: Specific Phobia, Panic Disorder, Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia

What is anxiety l.jpg
What is anxiety?

  • Activation of the “fight or flight” response.

  • Associated with a variety of internal sensations.

  • An adaptive and future-oriented process.

  • More appropriately described as “anxious apprehension”

Panic attacks l.jpg
Panic Attacks

  • A discrete period of intense fear or discomfort, associated with four (or more) of the following symptoms developed abruptly and reached a peak within 10 minutes.

    • Accelerated heart rate*

    • Sweating

    • Trembling

    • Shortness of breath*

    • Choking

    • Chest pain*

    • Nausea

    • Dizziness

    • Derealization

    • Fear of losing control/Fear of dying*

    • Numbness

    • Chills/Hot flashes

Panic attacks4 l.jpg
Panic Attacks

  • Very common in the general population (around 20% past year prevalence). Higher rates have been found in college student populations.

  • May be limited symptom (< 4 symptoms), full symptom (< 4 symptoms), nocturnal, cued, or uncued.

  • Seen across the anxiety disorders.

Specific phobia l.jpg
Specific Phobia

  • Fear of a specific object, place, or situation.

  • Four types: Animal type, Environment type (e.g., water, heights), Situational type (tunnels, bridges), Blood-injection-injury (BII) type.

  • Very common.

  • Very treatable with strictly exposure-based behavioral treatments (e.g., systematic desensitization, flooding).

Panic disorder l.jpg
Panic Disorder

  • Uncued (spontaneous, “out of the blue”) panic attacks are the defining feature of panic disorder.

  • 3-4% of the general population will develop panic disorder in their lifetime.

  • Late adolescent to mid-thirties is when we are at the greatest risk to develop this disorder.

  • Associated with heightened risk for depression, suicide, and, of course, agoraphobia.

Theories of panic disorder l.jpg
Theories of Panic Disorder

  • Psychodynamic

    • Unconscious, repressed anxiety being released.

  • Biological

    • Genetic component

    • Poor regulation of norepinephrine or serotonin

    • Carbon dioxide sensitivity

      In general, the physiological response of panic vs. non-panic individuals is about the same – suggesting that PD may be influenced by how we respond to our internal experience.

  • Theories of panic disorder8 l.jpg
    Theories of Panic Disorder

    • Fear of Fear

      • Behavioral: Classical conditioning

      • Panic is a conditioned response to internal stimuli (CS) associated with anxiety and fear

      • Not entirely clear about how PD develops.

      • Problem with this is that the CS and the CR are essentially the same, as are the US and UR. They are all panic/fear/anxiety.

    Theories of panic disorder9 l.jpg
    Theories of Panic Disorder

    • Catastrophic Misinterpretation

      • Cognitive theory

      • Fear is not necessary for a panic attack to occur.

      • Individuals can misinterpret any bodily sensation.

      • Not a conscious process – automatic, becomes a habit (i.e., a bodily sensation is detected immediately followed by a catastrophic thought).

      • Engaging in “safety behaviors” in response to a catastrophic thought prevent the refutation of a catastrophic thought.

      • Gambler’s fallacy

    Theories of panic disorder10 l.jpg
    Theories of Panic Disorder

    • Anxiety Sensitivity

      • Cognitive

      • Long-standing beliefs that the experience of anxious arousal will have negative physical (e.g., heart attack), social (embarrassment), or cognitive (“going crazy”) consequences.

      • These beliefs develop early in childhood.

      • High AS predicts the later development of panic.

      • Differs from catastrophic misinterpretation in that consequences are not necessarily immediate and anxiety sensitivity is considered to be learned (develops early in childhood).

    Theories of panic disorder11 l.jpg
    Theories of Panic Disorder

    • False alarm theory

      • Panic attacks are “false alarms” – the misfiring of the body’s fight or flight response due to increased stress and dysregulation.

      • As a result of this first false alarm, individuals learn to fear low level bodily sensations because these are “signals” that a panic attack may occur.

      • “Seek to avoid” process is reinforced.

      • However, anxiety about having these bodily sensations further increases the intensity of those sensations to the point that individuals may actually have a panic attack.

    Vulnerability l.jpg

    • Genetics

    • Childhood environment (endorsement of sick-role behavior).

    • High levels of stress.

    • Poor coping (emotional avoidance).

    • Substance use (tobacco, marijuana).

    Treatment l.jpg

    • Psychopharmacology

    • Cognitive Restructuring

    • Relaxation (diaphragmatic breathing)

    • Interoceptive Exposure

    Interoceptive exposure l.jpg
    Interoceptive Exposure

    • Induce bodily sensations associated with panic.

      • Head spinning (dizziness, disorientation)

      • Running in place (increased heart rate, sweating)

      • Hyperventilation (dizziness, increased heart rate, shortness of breath)

      • Chair spinning (dizziness, disorientation)

      • Breath holding (shortness of breath, choking)

      • Straw breathing (shortness of breath, dizziness)

      • Gag (feeling of nausea, vomiting)