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  1. Observer

  2. Observer Duties • Clear the flight path for the UA • Look for other air traffic in the area • Pass information to the PIC • Follow instructions from the PIC • Help with the normal launch and recovery procedures • Know the regulations

  3. Communication with PIC • Clear concise communications • Directive then descriptive • Directive – clearly tell PIC if UA must change current path to avoid conflict. • Descriptive – identify conflict with a direction and range then extra information that will help in decision making • Clock positions or Headings decide before hand and work as a team • Practice together • Sample “Continue current pattern, light aircraft north, three miles, heading west, no factor.”

  4. When traffic happens • This will not be common • Best to practice traffic calls prior to flight • Figure out what works best for your team • Stay calm • Speak clearly • Listen for conformation • If no conformation then speak again

  5. Lesson 2

  6. Scan Plan • Put yourself in a position to look through the UA to area of greatest concern • Like an instrument scan plan • Through UA, Right, Through UA, Left, Through UA, Behind, Through UA • Don’t stare for long periods • Focus on something far away • Listen for traffic

  7. Human Factors in Perception: Applications to UAS Observers July 9, 2008 UND Aerospace Dr. Warren Jensen

  8. Learning Objectives Discuss the challenges to human perception of UAS ground observation. Discuss visual acuity and limits of human visual perception . Describe how orientation, context, and extraneous cues impact our visual perception. Describe how relative motion, altered light angles, contrast, and loss of depth cues can impact visual perception.

  9. Perception The ability to gather and interpret sensory information. What is perception? Detection of Sensation or a Stimulus? Pattern recognition? Interpretation? Situation Awareness?

  10. Visual Perception Concepts Central and peripheral vision roles are different. Central vision is where your acuity and color vision is best. Used for high resolution and focus. Peripheral vision is used for orientation, assessment of speed, and detection of motion in your surroundings.

  11. Visual acuity • Our resolution is a function of pixels • The letter E on the Snellen Chart is 8.8 mm in height E E EEEEEEEEEE • At one mile: the E would have to be 2.3 meters. • This assumes adequate lighting and contrast • Can you fly the aircraft beyond your ability to see?

  12. Contrast issues

  13. Depth Perception • Binocular / stereoscopic vision • marginal beyond 20 yards • limited to 200 yards • Monocular cues are needed • Visual overlay, haze, shadow, reference

  14. Visual Overlay and Size Reference

  15. How far away is this 747?

  16. Visual Perception Challenges… Altered appearances compared to ground ops Atmospheric effects (dust and humidity) Haze is a distant visual cue Light sources from below Light angles can hide shadow cues Loss of Depth, Texture, and Size cues Indistinct features are difficult to assess

  17. Loss of Light Scatter

  18. Contrast and Texture

  19. Visual assessment of speed

  20. Relative Motion Objects that move in our peripheral vision are easier to detect. Objects moving toward or away from you are difficult to perceive.

  21. Strategies Optimize your visual acuity issues Beware of conditions that degrade acuity Correct scanning techniques Improve contrast issues Aircraft color/lighting, vantage point, light conditions Check backgrounds for contrast Colored lenses (in some settings)

  22. Strategies • Beware of visual obstructions • Color and shape similarity • Consider relative motion problems • More difficult to spot and assess motion

  23. Losing sight

  24. What to do when you lose sight • Admit it • Ask PIC if he/she sees the UA • If neither see UA have person at computer state where to look referencing HORIZON • Listen • Have person at computer drag next point back towards team • Command return and land

  25. Regulations • Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Operational Approval (National Policy 8900.227) • 14. a. Observer Requirements • 16. e. UAS Observer Qualifications • Class II medical certificates • Aviation knowledge • Visual Range with 1nm & 3000 feet limit

  26. 8.2.1 Observer Requirement: • VFR UAS operations may be authorized utilizing either ground-based or airborne visual observers onboard a dedicated chase aircraft. • A visual observer is required to perform the see and avoid function as alternative compliance to 14 CFR 91.113, Right-of-Way Rules: Except Water Operations. • The task of the observer is to provide the pilot of the UAS with instructions to steer the UA clear of any potential collision with other traffic. Visual observer duties require the ability to maintain visual contact with the UA at all times while scanning the immediate environment for potential conflicting traffic. At no time will the visual observer permit the UA to operate outside their line-of-sight. This ensures that any required maneuvering information can be reliably provided to the PIC. • The visual limitation will specify both a lateral and vertical distance and shall be regarded as a maximum distance from the observer where a determination of a conflict with another aircraft can be made. When an application is approved by the FAA, the visual limitation distance becomes a directive upon the observer.

  27. 08-01 • Generally, observers are to be positioned no greater than one nautical mile laterally and 3000 feet vertically from the UA. The use of nautical miles is based on the fact that the UA is being positioned by the pilot via control stations that typically use moving map displays that are referenced in nautical miles. • This distance is predicated on the observer’s normal unaided vision. Corrective lenses, spectacles, and contact lenses may be used. • When using other aids to vision, such as binoculars, field glasses, or telephoto television, visual observers must use caution to ensure that the UA remains within the approved visual limitation distance of the observer. • Due to field of view and distortion issues, the use of such aids can be used to augment the observer’s visual capability but cannot be used as the primary means of visual contact.

  28. 08-01 • Although this guidance specifies an observer distance, the small size of some UA may not allow for adequate observation at the one mile limit. It should be understood that this limit is the maximum range allowed and that a practical distance may be something less, with the determination of such at the discretion of the applicant. • Therefore, until an on site validation of observer distance is conducted by the FAA, it will remain the responsibility of the applicant to ensure the safety of flight and adequate visual range coverage to mitigate any potential collisions. • Conversely, larger UA may accommodate an observer distance greater than the one mile limit. (our current COAs state 1 NM) • The applicant may establish a distance greater than one mile based on a variety of factors. Increased observer distances may be proposed by the applicant and will be subject to review by the FAA either by on site demonstration or other means. • If UAS applications are approved for nighttime operations with flight operations that will depart or arrive between sunset and sunrise, the ground observer(s) must be in place one hour prior to that operation to ensure acclimation to the twilight/nighttime environment. (currently not UND)