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Next Generation Internet Architectures: Current Status and Challenges

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  1. Next Generation Internet Architectures: Current Status and Challenges Fábio Luciano Verdi University of Campinas (Unicamp), Brazil I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  2. Agenda • Introduction and Background • Current status of the Internet • Problems • Some current proposals • IETF • Content Networks • Pub/sub approach/paradigm • Current work of our group: architecture and some results • The future Internet: desired features • Discussion I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  3. Introduction and Background Some years ago… Internet I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  4. Introduction and Background Today… Internet But it works! I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  5. Introduction and Background Why so sad? • Naming • Shortage of Addresses • Security • Mobility I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  6. Introduction and Background Clean Slate Internet Naming DNS Shortage of IP Addresses NAT Internet Ossification E2E principle was broken Security IPSec Mobility Mobile IP I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  7. Introduction and Background Even more problems… • Novel services: • Multimedia • New types of data: voice • IPTV • QoS • Mobility  more dynamic, new places, maybe everywhere! • Heterogeneity  IPv4 / IPv6 • Security  can be affected by mobility, different threats • Multihoming: end-host multihoming and AS/ISP multihoming (DFZ problem) • IPv4 is to run out on 22nd May 2010!!! I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  8. Introduction and Background What should be done? • Start immediately a NGI proposal! • Take into account the experience and the lessons learned so far • Although we want to construct a “forever” architecture, this is IMPOSSIBLE: unknown situations • Try to make it simple!!! I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  9. Introduction and Background The most basic principle: IP = identifier + locator separation between identifier and locator I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  10. socket Static Binding Dynamic Binding Introduction and Background • 128 bits namespace (solves the lack of IPv4 addresses) • Solves the IP semantic overload • Enables new functionalities, like mobility, multihoming and heterogeneous network integration ID Layer TCP/IP Application Application socket Identifier Locator Locator Locator Locator Locator I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  11. Introduction and Background • We know it is the main solution!!!! But new challenges appear… • Identifier-based routing X resolution • Where the resolution is done • Several approaches • Common assumptions: most of the approaches consider to have a “box” in the border of the ISPs/domains • Host-based X network-based I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  12. Introduction and Background • Mapping EIDs to LOC • Cache • Query ETR ITR end host end host I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  13. Agenda • Introduction and Background • Current status of the Internet • Problems • Some current proposals • IETF • Content Networks • Pub/sub approach/paradigm • Current work of our group: architecture and some results • The future Internet: desired features • Discussion I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  14. IETF IETF proposals (or based on) • LISP (NERD, CONS) • IPvLX (draft): IPv6 acts as identifiers and IPv4 acts as locators • eFIT: Separate provider addresses from client addresses (draft, paper at ACM IPv6-August 2007) I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  15. Others • ROFL (Sigcomm 2006) • UIP (hotnets 2003, 2004, others) • DONA • Our nodeID extended: • NID / DID approach I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  16. Some Current Proposals: Limitations • Updates to the mapping are intended to be relatively rare • Not indicated for fast mobility • Mapping at the edges • Involves an ambitious Replicator system • Cache invalidation • Flooding/distributed servers • Time for lookups I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  17. Agenda • Introduction and Background • Current status of the Internet • Problems • Some current proposals • IETF • Content Networks • Pub/sub approach/paradigm • Current work of our group: architecture and some results • The future Internet: desired features • Discussion I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  18. Content Networks • It is a new paradigm! • Content-centric / data-oriented paradigm • Publish/Subscribe communication model • Information is indexed by keys and retrieved by subscription. • Protocols are declarative • Say what you want, not where to get it from • Data is self-certified • Self-validating data (hash, signature, PKI) • Secure the data not the channel • Routers/nodes become network processors • Are caches of content, indexes, and buffers. • Forward information while caching, in the style of MANETS, DTNs, sensor and P2P. I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  19. Traditional Internet vs. Content-Centric New Internet I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  20. Pub/Sub Communication Model Subscription Routing Publisher Rendevouz S ContentAdvertisements Subscriber P Dissemination of Publications Publisher I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  21. Agenda • Introduction and Background • Current status of the Internet • Problems • Some current proposals • IETF • Content Networks • Pub/sub approach/paradigm • Current work of our group: architecture and some results • The future Internet: desired features • Discussion I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  22. Current work of our group: architecture and some results • Functionalities • Name Resolution • Mobility • Multihoming • Flat Routing • Security • Heterogeneity • Legacy Applications Support I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  23. Internet Model I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  24. External Modules DNS DHT RVS DHCP Flat Routing Support NID Routing Conn Mapper ASI Legacy Appl. Support Internal Modules NID Filter DNS Handler ANI ANI Control plane Mobility DHT Client Identity Layer NID Mapper Packet Handler Security Gw Msg SV RVS Client Security Mgr DHCP Client ARI I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22 Network

  25. Results • Name Resolution (DNS and TXT records) • Registration (RVS and DHT) • Data transfer • Intra-domain mobility • Inter-domain mobility (node and domains) • Multihoming • Heterogeneous networks (IPv4/IPv6) • Network Composition I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  26. Results: Composition I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  27. Agenda • Introduction and Background • Current status of the Internet • Problems • Some current proposals • IETF • Content Networks • Pub/sub approach/paradigm • Current work of our group: architecture and some results • The future Internet: desired features • Discussion I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  28. The future Internet: desired features • Jon Crowcroft: Toward a Network Architecture that does Everything Communications of the ACM, January 2008 I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  29. The future Internet: desired features • Unbind identity and location • Flat and cryptographic global identifier • Flat routing • Heterogeneous network integration • Support to legacy applications (transparency) I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  30. The future Internet: desired features • Clean Slate X Patching • More business-oriented • Focus on data (content-based routing) • Sender-oriented  receiver-oriented • Natural or built-in mechanisms for multihoming, security and mobility • Context-awareness I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  31. Discussion • Challenges • Deployability • Scalability • Compensation mechanisms • Trust • Reputation • Unwanted traffic • … I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22

  32. Thanks!http://www.dca.fee.unicamp.br/~verdi I2ComM 2008 Colombia, Cartagena February 22