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Poland: Past and Present http://info-poland.buffalo.edu http://info-poland.icm.edu.pl. Poland is located in Europe’s Center. Note: in the east Europe stretches to the Ural mountains, which are off the map. Poland: Past and Present.

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poland past and present http info poland buffalo edu http info poland icm edu pl
Poland: Past and Present http://info-poland.buffalo.eduhttp://info-poland.icm.edu.pl

Poland is located in Europe’s Center

Note: in the east Europe stretches to the Ural mountains, which are off the map

poland past and present
Poland: Past and Present

Notes: “located in Europe’s Center“ is literally true. If one draws one straight line from the Norway’s North Shore (Europe’ furthest northern point) – to Cyprus, (its farthest point south) and a second straight line from Portugal’s to the Ural Mountains that separate Europe from Asia (not shown on this map) the two lines cross in Poland.

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Poland: Past and Present

The country is bordered by the Baltic Sea to the North and the Carpathian Mountains to the South

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Poland: Past and Present

The highest Carpathian Mountains, the Tatras, rise above the resort town of Zakopane and are belowed by the Poles.

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Poland: Past and Present

Warsaw, the country’s capital for the last 500 years, is a bustling modern metoropolis studded with skyscrapers but also possessing many palaces and an Old Town.

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Poland: Past and Present

During WWII Warsaw was 98% destroyed, but it has since been completely rebuilt An exception is the monument to the unknown soldier which is located in a piece of a collonade that had formed part of a royal palace.

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Poland: Past and Present

Poland is a fertile land and agriculture dominates much of the countryside

poland past and present historical timelines
Poland: Past and PresentHistorical timelines

966 – Mieszko I accepts Christianity on behalf of the Nation: History begins

1374, September 17 – In Kosice, King Louis I pledges to the Polish Nobility no Royal imposition of taxes without consent; integrity of the Nation’s territory ...

1505, May 3 – In Radom, the Nihil Novi Constitution adopted by Sejm and Senate. No introduction of new laws without consent of both Seim and Senate

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Poland: Past and Present

Jagiellonian

Poland-Lithuania

In 1466

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Poland: Past and Present

1573, 28 February – The Seym (parliament) meeting as the Confederation of Warsaw assures the practice of any religion without discrimination or penalty

1573, 4 April to 20 May – Election of King and his signing the Pacta Conventa promising not to declare war, raise an army, levy taxes without consent of Seym

1791, 3 May – Enactment of Europe’s first written Constitution

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Poland: Past and Present

Poland in 1772

Poland 1918 - 1939

Poland since 1945

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Poland: Past and Present

Confederation of Bar – 29 February 1768 – aimed at Russian garrisons (Pulaski)

Kosciuszko Uprising – March 24, 1794 – Krakow - For liberty, integrity, and sovereignty

November Uprising – November 30, 1930 – Warsaw - For independence

January Uprising – January 22, 1863 – Warsaw -For independence

Wielkopolskie Uprising – December 27, 1918 – Poznan – to free Wielkoposka

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising – April 1943 – To perish with dignity

Warsaw Uprising – August 1, 1944 – To liberate city in advance of Red Army

Poznan Demonstration – June 28, 1956 – For truth, freedom and bread

Gdansk Events – December 12-22, 1970 – For bread …

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Poland: Past and Present

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising – April 1943 – To perish with dignity

Warsaw Uprising – August 1, 1944 – To liberate city in advance of Red Army

Poznan Demonstration – June 28, 1956 – For truth, freedom and bread

Gdansk Events – December 12-22, 1970 – For bread …

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Poland: Past and Present

Religious faiths of the Polish Commonwealth in 1772

Today 95% of Poles are Roman Catholics

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Poland: Past and Present

A map of the 2nd Polish Republic as re-established in 1918

Showing the % of the population who was Jewish in towns (bold) and provinces.

The Nazis murdered most of that population during WWII

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Poland: Past and Present

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising – April 1943 – To perish with dignity

Warsaw Uprising – August 1, 1944 – To liberate city in advance of Red Army

Poznan Demonstration – June 28, 1956 – For truth, freedom and bread

Gdansk Events – December 12-22, 1970 – For bread …

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Poland: Past and Present

At the end of WWII Poland found itself consigned to the Soviet zone of influence and a was imposed a communist government. The elevation of Cardinal Wojtyla of Krakow in 1978 to the Papacy as John Paul II and his pastoral visits to Poland gave the nation courage

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Poland: Past and Present

In 1980, the workers at the shipyards in Gdansk, led by an electrician by name Lech Walesa, went on strike and won the right to form a independent (non-communist) union: “Solidarity”

poland past and present prof peter k gessner http info poland buffalo edu
Poland: Past and PresentProf. Peter K. Gessnerhttp://info-poland.buffalo.edu

Soon the Soldarnosc had over 10 million members and the communist government felt threatened.

On December 13, 1981, Gen. Jaruzelski, the head of the government declared matrial law and interned Lech Walesa and thousands of other Solidarity members.

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Poland: Past and Present

The Tables are turned:

December 22, 1990

Lech Walesa having won a landslide election is sworn is as Poland’s first post WWII non communist President

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Poland: Past and Present

March 12, 1999: Poland accedes to NATO

May 1, 2004: Poland accedes to the

European Union

Aleksander Kwasniewski

Poland’s President 1995 - 2005

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Poland: Past and Present

Jaroslaw and Lech Kaczynski, respectively

Poland’s current Primeminister and President

poland past and present prof peter k gessner http info poland buffalo edu23
Poland: Past and PresentProf. Peter K. Gessnerhttp://info-poland.buffalo.edu
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Poland: Past and Present

As of 6/22/05 info-poland is also available on the website of Warsaw University’s Mathematical and Computer Modeling Center