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CUBA. Kevin Incitti Tiffany Howett Courtney Kase Ashley Burneka Brian Dougan. Cuba: A Brief History. Kevin Incitti. Cuba: A Brief History. Discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492, and is located just 90 miles south of Key West

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Kevin Incitti

Tiffany Howett

Courtney Kase

Ashley Burneka

Brian Dougan

cuba a brief history3
Cuba: A Brief History
  • Discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492, and is located just 90 miles south of Key West
  • Original occupants of the island were Arawak Indians, were wiped out by Spanish
cuba a brief history4
Cuba: A Brief History
  • US gained control of Cuba in the Spanish American War in 1898
  • Through the Platt Amendment, Cuba was given Independence
  • The US had secured for itself the areas of Guantanamo and Bahia Honda, eventually giving up Bahia Honda for expanded control in Guantanamo, where they built a naval base
cuba a brief history5
Cuba: A Brief History
  • US continuously intervened in Cuban affairs, throughout the early 1900’s
  • Intervened in the August and February Revolutions, and in elections, until Geraldo Machado was elected President in 1924
  • Cuba was economically depressed and in political crisis -opposition to Machado was growing
  • 1933 Fulgencio Batista leads the Sergeants Revolt, overthrowing the established administration
cuba a brief history6
Cuba: A Brief History
  • Batista appoints Ramon Grau San Martin to power, who institutes sweeping range of social, economic, and political reforms
  • Batista then removes Ramon Grau San Martin from power, seizes control
  • Batista establishes a new constitution in 1940, only to be defeated in the 1944 elections by Grau San Martin
cuba a brief history7
Cuba: A Brief History
  • Cuba, still under the same regime, but now headed by Carlos Prio Socarras, was overthrown AGAIN, by Batista in 1952.
  • In July of 1953, Fidel Castro plans an attack on the Moncada barracks, landing him in prison.
  • Soon thereafter, Castro is freed from jail, and goes to Mexico to train and organize, he then returns to Cuba.
cuba a brief history8
Cuba: A Brief History
  • The US begins an arms embargo on the Batista Regime, which in turn, is interpreted as support for Castro
  • On January 1, 1959 Castro takes power in Cuba
cuba a brief history9
Cuba: A Brief History
  • Still in power today, Castro consolidated power, seized properties, and has led Cuba through historical events such as
    • The Bay of Pigs
    • Cuban Missile Crisis
    • Fall of one time ally the Soviet Union
    • The Mariel Boatlift (responsible for the emigration of 125,000 Cubans to Florida)
    • increased US sanctions


Tiffany Howett

  • 11.3 million
  • 70% live in urban areas, 30% in rural areas
  • Majority of population located in large cities of Havana, Santiago de Cuba, and Camaguey
  • 95% Spanish Speaking
  • 97% literacy rate
  • Growth Rate: 34% as of late 2004
  • Median Age: Total- 34.8 years

Male- 34.2 years

Female- 35.5 years

  • Birth Rate: 12.18 births/ 1000 population (2004 estimate)
  • Death Rate: averaged 7.17 deaths/ 1000 population
  • Life Expectancy:
    • Total- 74.04 years
    • Male- 74.77 years
    • Female- 79.44 years
  • Ethnic Groups:
      • 51% Mulatto
      • 37% White
      • 11% Black
      • 1% Chinese


Ashley Burneka

  • Roman Catholic- 6,205,000
  • Jehovah Witnesses-869,462,002
  • Jewish-1000
  • Other religions represented are- Protestant, Pentecostal, freemasonry and many afro-Cuban religions such as Santeria.
  • Due to centuries of slavery many African religions have developed in Cuba
  • Santeria or Regla de Ocha come from the Yoruba culture in Nigeria.
  • Practice magic, pray, divination,

and sacrifice.

  • Abakua is another Afro-Cuban religion which is a secret society for males that is practiced in the western part of Cuba.
  • Gross domestic Product (GDP)- based on agriculture, industry, and services- about $32.13 billion on purchasing
        • 5.5% Agriculture
        • 27% Industry
        • 67.6% Services
  • Today, most of the economy is run by the government, and is still recovering from the decline of GDP in 1989
  • Labor Force: In 2003 the labor force was 4.58, continues to rise
    • 24% work in Agriculture
    • 25% work in Industry Sector
    • 51% work in Services
      • According the Cuban Government 75% of the labor force is working for the state
  • Products: World producer of Sugar Cane
    • Also reliant on
        • Tourism
        • Coffee
        • Potatoes
        • Rice
        • Petroleum
        • Tobacco
        • Nickel
        • Steel
        • Livestock
national popular culture
National/ Popular Culture
  • Education
    • High level of Cuban education
    • 1/42 ratio
    • Literacy 96%
    • 95% ages six-sixteen
  • Communication
    • Ministry of Communications
    • Telecommunications infrastructure
    • 1990’s cellular introduction
    • China’s aid
    • Choteo
    • Print Publications
national popular culture25














National/Popular Culture
national popular culture26


New Years Day

Los Quince

Community Life




Three Kings Day

Noche Buena


Cigar Making


National/Popular Culture
  • Everyday life (greetings)
    • Kissing and hugging
  • Carnival
  • The Conga
    • commemorates the days of Corpus Christi and the Epiphany
  • “Primero de Enero or Dia de Ano” (New Year’s)
  • Los quince
cuban cuisine
Cuban Cuisine
  • Simple in concept, complex in flavor
  • Influenced by Spanish, French, African, Arabic, Chinese, and Portuguese cultures
  • Although an island, fish is rarely used in cooking; meat is favored food especially beef
  • Staples in diet include: rice, beans, and vegetables
  • Popular vegetables such as yucca (potato-like vegetable) and sweet potatoes
  • Cucumber abundant vegetable
cuban cuisine32
Cuban Cuisine
  • Breakfast
    • tostada and cafe con leche
    • tostada is a portion of Cuban bread which is buttered then toasted on a grill.  The cafe con leche is a combination of strong, espresso coffee with warm milk. Dunk bread into drink
  • Lunch
    • empanadas, chicken or meat turnovers, or Cuban sandwiches
    • sandwich could be a media noche (midnight sandwich), consisting of a slice of pork, ham, and swiss cheese and then topped with pickles and mustard on sweetened egg bread.
cuban cuisine33
Cuban Cuisine
  • Snack
    • Cuban bakeries famous for their finger foods, such as pastelitos, croquetas, bocaditos, and empanadas.  Pastelitos are small flaky turnovers in various shapes filled with meat, cheese, guava, or a combination of guava and cream cheese. Bocaditos are small bite size sandwiches layered with a ham spread.
  • Dinner
    • Consists of a meat, chicken, or fish dish as the entree accompanied by white rice, black beans, and maduros, sweet fried plantains. 
    • Followed by dessert of the typical flan, a Cuban caramel-flavored custard, and another shot of cafe cubano.
cuban cuisine34
Cuban Cuisine
  • Holidays
    • small pig, marinated with salt, garlic, and sour orange juice, and then roasted over an open fire, and slowly cooked for several hours. 
    • Served with congri, a white rice and black bean mixture also known as Moors and Christians,  boniato in a garlic dressing, and maduros.
  • U.S. influenced foods:
    • Hamburger “frita”
  • Rum
    • “Rum and Coke” known as “Cuba Libre”
    • Consumed at most meals
    • “Mojito”
      • Cuban rum, seltzer water, sugar, lime, and mint leaves
material life
Material Life
  • Major industries
    • Tobacco and coffee competed with sugar since 19th century
    • Tourism most promising new activity for earning of hard currency
    • Reintroduction of animal traction for agriculture
    • Nickel is abundant mineral resource


Ashley Burneka

  • Spanish is the official language of Cuba.
  • There are not various different dialects across nation.
  • English is spoken in many of the larger cities and tourist areas. Especially around Havana.
  • Creole is also spoken in many eastern provinces of the island because of Haitian immigrants who fled to Cuba at the end of the Haitian revolution
  • Prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union many students were taught Russian and German as second languages
  • After the collapse everything quickly switched to English, such as the classes taught in school and universities
government social order41
Government/ Social Order
  • Republic of Cuba
  • Communist State
  • Capital: Havana
  • Administrative divisions
    • 14 Provinces
  • Legal System
    • 3 Branches (Executive,Legislative,Judicial)
government social order42
Government/Social Order
  • Political parties-Cuban Communist Party
  • Leader: Fidel Castro
  • Diplomatic Representation
    • In US-None
    • From US-None
  • Independence
    • December 10, 1898-from Spain
    • May 20, 1902-form United States
  • Cuban people have dealt with a remarkably unstable history full of revolutions
  • Their economy struggles, and they are making a strong push to increase tourism
  • Fidel Castro’s power has been a mainstay for the last 50 years
  • Being in the US we mainly hear of the poor conditions in Cuba, rarely about their deep rooted culture, traditions, and celebrations
  • While the living conditions in Cuba are poor for many, the people are strong and will continue to move forward