Lecture 32 Subordination (II) . 32.1 Infinitive clauses An infinitive clauses is a “subject + predicate” construction with an infinitive as predicator.
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1)Type of infinitive clausesa) Infinitive clause without expressed subjectI hoped to be able to come.To be frank, you need a great deal of courage.
b) Infinitive clause with expressed subjectThe best thing would be for you to tell everybody.He knew that with him to help, she would and would succeed.Rather than you do the job, I prefer to finish it myself.We shall assemble at 9, the procession to start moving at precisely 9:15.
c) Infinitive clause introduced by wh-word or subordinatorI don’t know what to do / how to do it/ where to go.He opened his lips as if to say something.
2) Syntactic functions of infinitive clausesa) As an adverbial of purpose, the infinitive is usually with to. She stood up to be seen better.He moved aside for her to be seen better.
b) To denote result, we normally use the simple form of to-infinitiveIn 1935 he left home never to return.His work was so good as to make him well-known in the city.
32.2 –ing participle clauses1) Types of –ing participle causesa) –Ing participle clause without expressed subject or subordinatorHe denied having been there.I have friend living in london.B) –Iing participle clause with subordinatorWhen sleeping, I never hear a thing.
2) Syntactic functions of –ing participle clausesa) Both –ing participle and infinitive clauses can be used as subject, object, and subject/object complement.
b) As adverbials , -ing participle clauses can be used in various senses.Climbing to the top of the tower, we saw a magnificent view.Being a hard-working young man, he was praised by his teachers.Knowing all this, he still insisted on my paying for the damage.It rained heavily, causing sever flooding in that area.
32.3 –ed participle clauses.1) Types of -ed participle clausesCovered with confusion, she hurriedly left the room.Once published, the book caused a remarkable stir.The job finished, we went home straight away.
2) Syntactic functions of –ed participle clausesa) A postmodifying –ed participle clause corresponds to an elliptical relative clause.b) As an adverbial, -ed participle clauses can denote time, cause, condition, concession as well as accompanying circumstances.
32.4 Verbless clausesIt is a clause without any form of verb element as predicator.Right or wrong, I have given him a piece of mind.Whatever the reason, his cordiality has won him a friend.