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Lab 10: Reproductive System
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  1. Lab 10: Reproductive System

  2. Endocrine Review • What is the structure that transports hormones from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland? • What is the function of parathyroid hormone?

  3. Digestive Review • What 2 structures are linked by the esophagus? • Name two specialized structures in the digestive tract that increase the surface area available for reabsorption.

  4. Announcements • Next week- Final Lab Practical Review • Lab Reports Due Today • Final Lab Practical regular lab time two weeks from today.

  5. Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction • What is sexual reproduction? • Compared to asexual reproduction • Advantages • Disadvantages

  6. Chromosomes and “n” • What is “n”? • Number of copies of each chromosome • Difference between “n” and chromosome number. • Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes • Humans are 2n • Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes

  7. Gametes and Zygotes • Gametes • 1N sex cells • Product of meiosis • Zygote • 2N fusion of gametes • Product of fertilization

  8. Meiosis vs Mitosis • Meiosis • Reduction division • Sexual division and formation of gametes • Mitosis • Somatic cell division • Chromosome “n” number same in starting cell and end products

  9. Sex organs and characteristics • Primary Sex Organs • Secondary Sex Organs • Secondary Sex Characteristics

  10. Overview- Male Reproductive Anatomy • Testis • Epididymis • Vas Deferens • Prostate Gland • Seminal Vesicle • Bulbourethral Gland • Penis • Urethra • Glans Penis

  11. Male Reproductive System

  12. Scrotum • Testis • Produce Sperm • Epididymis • Stores Sperm and allows to mature • Vas deferens • Connects epididymis to the seminal vessicles • Smooth muscles transport sperm to pelvic cavity

  13. Semen • Semen: fluid ejaculated by the male • Components: • Sperm: 10% of semen • Prostrate Gland: 30% of semen • Seminal vesicle: 60% of semen • Secretions from the Bulbourethral gland • Secretes fluid that lubricates tip of penis • Neutralizes acid pH from urine

  14. Penis • Penis • Delivers semen to the vagina • Urethra • Tube that delivers semen out of body • What other system is this a part of??? • Glans penis • Swollen head of the penis

  15. Erection • Cause • Increase Blood Flow / Vasodilation • Activator • Sexual simulation • Nitric Oxide stimulates vasodilation

  16. Overview- Female Reproductive System • Ovary • Fimbriae • Uterine tubes • Uterus • Cervix • Vagina

  17. Female Reproductive System Uterus Uterine tubes Ovary Vagina

  18. Egg development and Transport • Ovary • Female gonads produce eggs • Fimbriae • Feathery projections connect ovary to the uterine tube • Uterine Tube • Delivers egg to the uterus

  19. Uterus • Thick muscular chamber • Fertilized egg will attach to wall • Harbors embryo • Provides nutrition to embryo • Expels fetus • 3 layers: perimetrium, myometrium and endometrium

  20. Birth Canal • Cervix • Cylindrical inferior end of Uterus • Vagina • Birth Canal • Receptor for the penis

  21. Dynamic Human CD Anatomy

  22. Spermatogenesis • Primordial Germ Cell Mitosis • Type A and Type B spermatogonium • Type A retained • Type B passes over blood-testis barrier and becomes Primary spermatocyte

  23. Spermatogenesis • Primary spermatocyte Meiosis I • Secondary spermatocyte Meiosis II • Spermatids Spermatogenesis • Spermatozoa

  24. Spermatogenesis

  25. Oogenesis • One cell type (Primary oocyte) 2n • Meiosis first division • Secondary Oocyte (1n) • Polar body 1n (Degrades)

  26. Secondary Oocyte • No fertilization • Gets half way through meiosis 2 and dies • Fertilization • Meiosis second division completes • Egg 1n (to be fertilized) • Polar body 1n (Degrades)

  27. Oogenesis

  28. Summary of Gamete Formation • Spermatogenesis • 1 primary spermatocyte produces 4 spermatozoa • Oogenesis • 1 primary oocyte produces 1 egg and two lost polar bodies

  29. Dynamic Human CD Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis

  30. Ovarian Cycle (Egg maturation) • Follicular • Lasts about 14 days • First 3-5 days  menstruation • Developing oocytes held in follicle, polar bodies die • Ovulation • Day 14 • Oocyte released from follicle • Luteal • About 14 days • Oocyte held in corpus luteum

  31. Ovarian Cycle

  32. Menstrual Cycle • Proliferative • Rebuilding of endometrial tissue by mitosis • Secretory • Thickening of endometrial tissue caused by secretion of nutrient-rich fluid • Menstration • Blood, serous fluid and tissue discharge

  33. Menstrual Cycle

  34. Breast Cancer • Cancer of the lymphatic vessels of the breast • Caused by: • Excess weight • Smoking • Alcohol • Heredity • Treatment • Lumpectomy • Partial mastectomy • Total mastectomy

  35. Circumcision • Prepuce is removed from Glans penis • Done for hygienic reasons • Largely deemed unnecessary today • Although???

  36. Males Vasectomy Vas deferens severed Females Tubal ligation Division of uterine tubes Sterilization

  37. Sex the cat Female Ovary Uterine horns Body of uterus Male Scrotum Testes Carefully remove the connective tissue surrounding the testes epididymis  vas deferens - Penis Cat dissection

  38. Review • Reproductive anatomy • Meiosis and Gamete formation • Identification of anatomy of cats • Lab Practical Review Next Week during normal lab time. • Final Lab Practice two weeks from today