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Endocrine Review • What is the structure that transports hormones from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland? • What is the function of parathyroid hormone?
Digestive Review • What 2 structures are linked by the esophagus? • Name two specialized structures in the digestive tract that increase the surface area available for reabsorption.
Announcements • Next week- Final Lab Practical Review • Lab Reports Due Today • Final Lab Practical regular lab time two weeks from today.
Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction • What is sexual reproduction? • Compared to asexual reproduction • Advantages • Disadvantages
Chromosomes and “n” • What is “n”? • Number of copies of each chromosome • Difference between “n” and chromosome number. • Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes • Humans are 2n • Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes
Gametes and Zygotes • Gametes • 1N sex cells • Product of meiosis • Zygote • 2N fusion of gametes • Product of fertilization
Meiosis vs Mitosis • Meiosis • Reduction division • Sexual division and formation of gametes • Mitosis • Somatic cell division • Chromosome “n” number same in starting cell and end products
Sex organs and characteristics • Primary Sex Organs • Secondary Sex Organs • Secondary Sex Characteristics
Overview- Male Reproductive Anatomy • Testis • Epididymis • Vas Deferens • Prostate Gland • Seminal Vesicle • Bulbourethral Gland • Penis • Urethra • Glans Penis
Scrotum • Testis • Produce Sperm • Epididymis • Stores Sperm and allows to mature • Vas deferens • Connects epididymis to the seminal vessicles • Smooth muscles transport sperm to pelvic cavity
Semen • Semen: fluid ejaculated by the male • Components: • Sperm: 10% of semen • Prostrate Gland: 30% of semen • Seminal vesicle: 60% of semen • Secretions from the Bulbourethral gland • Secretes fluid that lubricates tip of penis • Neutralizes acid pH from urine
Penis • Penis • Delivers semen to the vagina • Urethra • Tube that delivers semen out of body • What other system is this a part of??? • Glans penis • Swollen head of the penis
Erection • Cause • Increase Blood Flow / Vasodilation • Activator • Sexual simulation • Nitric Oxide stimulates vasodilation
Overview- Female Reproductive System • Ovary • Fimbriae • Uterine tubes • Uterus • Cervix • Vagina
Female Reproductive System Uterus Uterine tubes Ovary Vagina
Egg development and Transport • Ovary • Female gonads produce eggs • Fimbriae • Feathery projections connect ovary to the uterine tube • Uterine Tube • Delivers egg to the uterus
Uterus • Thick muscular chamber • Fertilized egg will attach to wall • Harbors embryo • Provides nutrition to embryo • Expels fetus • 3 layers: perimetrium, myometrium and endometrium
Birth Canal • Cervix • Cylindrical inferior end of Uterus • Vagina • Birth Canal • Receptor for the penis
Dynamic Human CD Anatomy
Spermatogenesis • Primordial Germ Cell Mitosis • Type A and Type B spermatogonium • Type A retained • Type B passes over blood-testis barrier and becomes Primary spermatocyte
Spermatogenesis • Primary spermatocyte Meiosis I • Secondary spermatocyte Meiosis II • Spermatids Spermatogenesis • Spermatozoa
Oogenesis • One cell type (Primary oocyte) 2n • Meiosis first division • Secondary Oocyte (1n) • Polar body 1n (Degrades)
Secondary Oocyte • No fertilization • Gets half way through meiosis 2 and dies • Fertilization • Meiosis second division completes • Egg 1n (to be fertilized) • Polar body 1n (Degrades)
Summary of Gamete Formation • Spermatogenesis • 1 primary spermatocyte produces 4 spermatozoa • Oogenesis • 1 primary oocyte produces 1 egg and two lost polar bodies
Dynamic Human CD Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
Ovarian Cycle (Egg maturation) • Follicular • Lasts about 14 days • First 3-5 days menstruation • Developing oocytes held in follicle, polar bodies die • Ovulation • Day 14 • Oocyte released from follicle • Luteal • About 14 days • Oocyte held in corpus luteum
Menstrual Cycle • Proliferative • Rebuilding of endometrial tissue by mitosis • Secretory • Thickening of endometrial tissue caused by secretion of nutrient-rich fluid • Menstration • Blood, serous fluid and tissue discharge
Breast Cancer • Cancer of the lymphatic vessels of the breast • Caused by: • Excess weight • Smoking • Alcohol • Heredity • Treatment • Lumpectomy • Partial mastectomy • Total mastectomy
Circumcision • Prepuce is removed from Glans penis • Done for hygienic reasons • Largely deemed unnecessary today • Although???
Males Vasectomy Vas deferens severed Females Tubal ligation Division of uterine tubes Sterilization
Sex the cat Female Ovary Uterine horns Body of uterus Male Scrotum Testes Carefully remove the connective tissue surrounding the testes epididymis vas deferens - Penis Cat dissection
Review • Reproductive anatomy • Meiosis and Gamete formation • Identification of anatomy of cats • Lab Practical Review Next Week during normal lab time. • Final Lab Practice two weeks from today