Chapter 4 Resources and EnvironmentLearning Objectives: • World resources: nature, distribution & limits • Global food problems: their nature & extent, difficulties in their solution • Strategic minerals: distribution & supply • The energy crisis: causes, consequences and alternative energy options • Nature and causes of environmental degradation
Thinking about the organization of this textbook • First, a broad discussion of resources • Then, a detour into theory (finally) • Followed by a treatment of industry, progressing from activities absorbing natural resources through service industries • Cast in space – in cities, and in systems of trade • First, though, let us think about the broad sectors of economic activity
The Economic System: An Industry Perspective (Fig 8.2) • Primary: agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining • Secondary: Manufacturing, Construction & Utilities • Tertiary: Transportation, Trade, Business Services, Consumer Services, Public Services • Quaternary Elements of tertiary except the channel of distribution (trade, transport)
Key Lines Of Service Employment
The Economic System: A structural perspective Indicates Transactions Within Industry Group H O U S E H O L D S Primary Activities: Agriculture Mining Forestry Fishing Tertiary Activities: Trade Transport Consumer Services Producer Services Public Services Secondary Activities: Manufacturing Construction Utilities Capital Stock Demand by All Sectors
The Economic System: A structural perspective (Chapters) Chapter 5 Indicates Transactions Within Industry Group H O U S E H O L D S Primary Activities: Agriculture Mining Forestry Fishing Tertiary Activities: Trade Transport Consumer Services Producer Services Public Services Ch 8, 9 Secondary Activities: Manufacturing Construction Utilities Ch 7 Capital Stock Ch 4,6 Demand by All Sectors Ch 11 Ch. 12-14: Trade Ch 10: Cities
Foundational Issues and Resources and Population • The constant specter of Malthus’ warning-Katrina & oil • Resource optimists vs. resource pessimists • The text contrasts a carrying capacity (?sustainable development?) versus overpopulation approach to development • Patterns of growth with benefits to all, not just elites • Carrying capacity under particular technologies • Alternatives to the current Western energy & material intensive production systems, based on (1) sun-based organic agriculture, (2) renewable energy sources, (3) greater reliance on local raw materials & labor intensive technologies, and (4) decentralized production to increase local self-reliance and reduce transport activity Contrary to current institutions
Types of Resources and Their Limits Entire Stock Nonrenewable Vs. renewable Resources. Renewable Stocks (soil) Vs. renewable Flows (water) Maximum Sustained yield Tragedy of the commons ?Cost Of Use? For a specific Time period “Natural resources have meaning only in terms of historically-specific Technical and cultural appraisals of nature….” p. 99
Food and Population Globally food production has kept pace with population. Africa with major food supply problems; elsewhere problems of equity In food supply distributions and nutritional quality. Obesity
Food Resource Issues • Urbanization & food supply patterns • Poverty – esp. in Africa & other LDC’s. Chapter 14 revisits this topic; under-nutrition; chronic malnutrition • Population Growth & Food Security issues – problems of transport, marketing and storage, mismatch between where grain supplies are produced and needed • Civil Unrest and War • Environmental Decline – desertification & deforestation • Government policy and debt
World Desertification – multiple causes – ?Role of Global Warming?
Increasing Food Production • Expanding Cultivated Areas • Theoretically about 2X current area, but major environmental issues (desertification, deforestation, related climate change) • Raising the Productivity of Existing Cropland • Green Revolution; inequitable pattern. Figure 4.9 • Other factors:- aquaculture, development of high-protein cereals, more efficient use of certain foods • Concerns about genetically engineered seed stocks • How to institutionalize more sustainable agriculture?
Pressure on Ocean Resources & Aquaculture Tragedy of the Commons Natural Cycles On-shore pollution Natural disasters (Katrina And Gulf Coast Oysters) Side effects of aquaculture Complex regulatory issues Reference in text to Ellis: No data related to Fig 4.11