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Physics 320: Astronomy and Astrophysics – Lecture XIII. Carsten Denker Physics Department Center for Solar–Terrestrial Research. The Jovian Worlds. The Giant Planets The Jovian Moons Io Europa Ganymede Callisto Ring System.

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physics 320 astronomy and astrophysics lecture xiii

Physics 320: Astronomy and Astrophysics – Lecture XIII

Carsten Denker

Physics Department

Center for Solar–Terrestrial Research

the jovian worlds
The Jovian Worlds
  • The Giant Planets
  • The Jovian Moons
    • Io
    • Europa
    • Ganymede
    • Callisto
  • Ring System

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

the giant planets
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune = 99.5% of the entire mass of the planetary system

Galileo Galilei 1610  Galilean moons and Saturn’s ring (telescope)

Pioneer 10/11 and Voyager ½

Galileo and Cassini-Huygens

Contribution of degenerate electron pressure

Brown dwarfs must have masses less than about 80 MJupiter

The Giant Planets

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

jupiter
Jupiter

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

shoemaker levy 9
Shoemaker-Levy 9

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

atmosphere
Atmosphere

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

oblateness
Equatorial radius: Re = 71,370 km

Polar radius: Rp = 66,750 km

Oblateness: (Re Rp) / Re = 0.0648

First order correction term in gravitational potential:   U / m

Oblateness

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

gravitational moments
J2: oblateness and moment of inertia

J4: mass distribution in outer regions, equatorial bulge, and planets thermal structure

Gravitational Moments

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

the jovian moons
Galilean moon: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto

Rock  increase of water-ice crust (volatiles)

Formation of moons linked to formation of Jupiter itself

Hot Jupiter evaporation of volatiles on the closer moons

Tidal interactions  volcanism

Volcanism similar to geysers (sulfur and sulfur dioxide SO2)

Resonance in orbits of Io, Europa, and Ganymede: 1:2:4 ratio of orbital periods

Galilean moons are located inside Jupiter’s magnetosphere (210 times rJupiter

vIo = 57 km/s  potential differences of up to 600 kV and currents of up to 106 A

The Jovian Moons

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

slide10
Io

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

magnetosphere
Magnetosphere

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

volcanism on io
Volcanism on Io

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

europa
Europa

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

ganymede
Ganymede

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

callisto
Callisto

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

internal structure
Internal Structure

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

saturn
Saturn

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

ring systems
Cassini division

Encke gap

Thousands of ringlets

F ring is very narrow and appears to be braided

Ring extend about 5 rSaturn and are very thin ( 10 m, ripples  1 km)

Optical depth of ring system between 0.1 and 2

Partially inelastic collisions keep rings thin

Ring particles are small, a few centimeters to several meters

Rings are highly reflective (albedos in the range from 0.2 to 0.6)

Ring systems of Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune

Keplerian shear

Shepherd moons

Orbital resonance

Spiral density waves

Poynting-Robertson effect

Ring Systems

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

atmosphere1
Atmosphere

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

uranus
Uranus

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

seasons on uranus
Seasons on Uranus

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

neptune
Neptune

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

comparison of internal structure
Comparison of Internal Structure

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

homework class project
Homework Class Project
  • Continue improving the PPT presentation.
  • Use the abstract from the previous assignment as a starting point for a PowerPoint presentation.
  • The PPT presentation should have between 5 and 10 slides.
  • Bring a print-out of the draft version to the next class as a discussion template for group work
  • Homework is due Wednesday December 10th, 2003. Last chance!

NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research

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