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Embedded Clauses in TAG. S. NP VP. V S-bar. S. COMP NP VP. We think that they have left. Embedded Clauses. Matrix Clause. Embedded Clause. The cat seems to be out of the bag. There seems to be a problem. That seems to be my husband.

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embedded clauses

S

NP VP

VS-bar

S

COMPNPVP

We thinkthat they have left.

Embedded Clauses

Matrix Clause

Embedded Clause

how we know that the semantic role assignments are different with seem and try
The cat seems to be out of the bag.

There seems to be a problem.

That seems to be my husband.

The doctor seemed to examine Sam.

Sam seemed to be examined by the doctor.

The cat tried to be out of the bag.

*There tried to be a problem.

That tried to be my husband.

The doctor tried to examine Sam.

Sam tried to be examined by the doctor.

How we know that the semantic role assignments are different with Seem and Try
raising to subject

S

S

NP VP

NP VP

VS-bar

VVP-bar

S

VP

COMPNPVP

COMP

It seemsthat they have left.

They seemto have left.

Raising to subject
slide5

S

Two ways to represent that “seem” and “leave” share a subject.

NP VP

VVP-bar

Subj they

Verb seem

Complement subj

verb leave

VP

COMP

They seemto have left.

S

NP VP

VS

NP VP

They seem e to have left.

comparison
Comparison
  • Second method:
    • Allow empty strings as terminal nodes in the tree.
    • An empty string needs to take the place of the missing subject of the lower clause.
    • The empty string is linked to the subject of the main clause to show that the main and embedded clauses share a subject.
    • The tree represents: word order, constituent structure, grammatical relations, semantic roles.
  • First method:
    • No empty strings in the tree.
    • The tree represents only word order and constituent structure.
    • Grammatical relations and semantic roles are represented in a separate structure.
    • Structure sharing in the representation of grammatical relations shows that the two verbs share a subject.
  • Is one method simpler than the other?
    • No. Both methods have to represent word order, semantic relations, grammatical relations, and semantic roles.
      • People who argue that one is simpler are usually wrong – they don’t know how to count steps in a derivation.
slide7

S

Two ways to represent that “try” and “leave” share a subject.

NP VP

VVP-bar

Subj they

Verb seem

Complement subj

verb leave

VP

COMP

They try to leave.

S

PRO is an empty string, but not the same kind

of empty string as e

Coindexing indicates that PRO refers to “they”.

NP VP

VS

NP VP

They(i) try PRO(i)to leave.

seem type verbs in tag

S

NP VP

Adjunction site

V AP

John to be happy

“Seem” type verbs in TAG

VP

V VP

seem

Auxiliary Tree

Initial Tree

These trees represent the number of arguments for each verb:

“Seem” has one argument, represented as a VP.

“To be happy” has one argument, “John”.

slide9

VP

V VP

Adjunction site

seem

S

NP VP

VP

V AP

to be happy

John

slide10

VP

VP

S

S

NP

NP VP

V VP

V VP

seems

seem

V AP

V AP

to be happy

to be happy

John

John

Adjunction

VP

This tree shows word order and constituent structure.

It also shows that “John” is the subject of “seem.”

It doesn’t show that “John” is the subject of “to be happy.”

try type verbs in tag

S

S

NP VP

Adjunction site

NP VP

TO VP

V

S

PRO leave

John tried

“Try” type verbs in TAG

Initial Tree

Auxiliary Tree

These trees show the number of arguments for each verb:

“Try” has two arguments.

“Leave” has one argument.

slide12

S

S

NP VP

Adjunction site

NP VP

TO VP

V

S

PRO leave

John tried

S

slide13

S

S

NP VP

Adjunction site

NP VP

TO VP

V

S

PRO leave

John tried

S

slide14

S

S

NP VP

NP VP

TO VP

V

PRO leave

John tried

Adjunction is only allowed at the top S node so as not to mess up compositional semantics:

After you put together “try to leave” you don’t want to have to take it apart again by inserting another verb like “expected” as in:

John tried to expect to leave.

Inserting “seem” into the middle of the tree doesn’t require you to disassemble any of the semantic pieces that were already assembled?