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US IMPERIALISM. Warm Up. Read about the “Square Deal”- summarize what it is, how does it represent a progressive president? . Objectives & Questions. Explain why and how America acquired Hawaii using a timeline. Summarize the Open Door policy in a paragraph. Questions to answer:

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warm up
Warm Up
  • Read about the “Square Deal”- summarize what it is, how does it represent a progressive president?
objectives questions
Objectives & Questions
  • Explain why and how America acquired Hawaii using a timeline.
  • Summarize the Open Door policy in a paragraph.
  • Questions to answer:
    • Why did the U.S. abandon her traditional isolationist foreign policy?
    • How did the U.S. expand its influence in the world?
    • Why did the United States go to war with Spain in 1898 and what resulted from the American victory?
isolationism vs imperialism
Isolationism vs. Imperialism
  • Isolationism: avoiding involvement in the affairs of other nations
    • In his 1796 Farewell Address, George Washington advised the US to not get in foreign alliances
    • US leaders followed this advice, however Americans wanted to improve the American economy with foreign trade
  • Imperialism: The practice of extending a nation’s power by gaining territories for a colonial empire
    • Between 1870-1914 Europeans took control of much of Africa and Southeast Asia for raw materials for their industrialization and for new markets for their products
expansionist stirrings and war with spain 1878 1901
Expansionist Stirrings and War with Spain, 1878-1901
  • Roots of Expansionist Sentiment
    • In the late 19th century the U.S.A. showed heightened interest in overseas empires
      • Example of European nations and Japan, which were seizing colonies in Asia and Africa
    • During the depression of 1893-1897, American businessmen and politicians argued that the U.S.A. must capture overseas markets to maintain prosperity
roots of expansionist sentiment
Roots of Expansionist Sentiment
  • Republican politicians claimed that to be a great power the U.S. must:
    • build up its navy
    • obtain far-flung colonies
      • to establish fueling stations and bases
    • Show its influence in the world as a superior county
  • Inspired by:
    • Alfred T. Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power upon History
    • Social Darwinist ideas
  • Leading Republicans were:
    • Theodore Roosevelt
    • Henry Cabot Lodge
    • John Hay
annexing hawaii
Annexing Hawaii
  • The planters established a new government and declared Hawaii to be under U.S. control
  • Congress annexed Hawaii on July 7, 1898
  • By the 1840s 80% of the ships arriving in Hawaii were American owned, as were shops, warehouses, and shipyards
  • The planters revolted and 150 US marines came ashore to help with the revolt, which succeeded without any shots being fired
  • An 1875 treaty allowed Hawaiian sugar to be shipped without taxes to the US if Hawaii did not grant territory or special privileges to any other foreign nation
  • US ships began stopping in Hawaii for supplies and US missionaries began creating farms and businesses
  • US Sugar planters forced King Kalakaua to sign a constitution grating more power to themselves
  • The Hawaiian people first came in contact with Europeans in 1778
  • In 1893 Queen Liliuokalani got power and signed a new constitution taking away power from the plantation owners
annexing hawaii1
Annexing Hawaii
  • The Hawaiian people first came in contact with Europeans in 1778
  • US ships began stopping in Hawaii for supplies and US missionaries began creating farms and businesses
  • By the 1840s 80% of the ships arriving in Hawaii were American owned, as were shops, warehouses, and shipyards
  • An 1875 treaty allowed Hawaiian sugar to be shipped without taxes to the US if Hawaii did not grant territory or special privileges to any other foreign nation
  • US Sugar planters forced King Kalakaua to sign a constitution granting more power to themselves
  • In 1893 Queen Liliuokalani got power and signed a new constitution taking away power from the plantation owners
  • The planters revolted and 150 US marines came ashore to help with the revolt, which succeeded without any shots being fired
  • The planters established a new government and declared Hawaii to be un U.S. control
  • Congress annexed Hawaii on July 7, 1898
open door policy
Open Door Policy
  • Read pg. 472 from “The Unfinished Nation,” and summarize in your own words what the Open Door Policy was, why it was important for America, and how it was accomplished.
slide10

What countries do you see?

  • What objects do you see?
  • What do these things represent?
  • What facial expressions do you see? Why?

Explain who is in this picture and what is being represented by the cartoon.

slide11

Uncle Sam restrains the militaristic aggression of the European Great Powers—France, Russia, Germany, and Italy—while China eyes an American-made train engine, sewing machine, and other U.S. commercial products. 

  • In the left-background, Britain tips his hat approvingly at Uncle Sam’s behavior.  
open door policy1
Open Door Policy
  • After China’s 1895 defeat by Japan other nations took advantage of China’s weakness to seize spheres of influence
    • areas where foreign nations control trade and natural resources
    • Germany, England, Russia, and France all took territory
      • were forcing the weak Chinese govt. to lease that country’s ports to them, Then they closed those ports to trade and investment by business of any country but their own
  • The US feared that it would be kept out of Chinese markets, but the nation lacked the naval power to take over territory in China
  • In 1899 Secretary of State John Hay proposed a policy that would give all nations equal trading rights in China.
    • Known as the Open Door Policy
    • Urged all foreigners in China to obey Chinese law, observe fair competition
  • Other countries did not accept or reject the policy, so Hay announced that they accepted it
the open door competing for the china market
The “Open Door”: Competing for the China Market
  • After the policy was “accepted,” the United States joined the European countries involved in China in putting down a Chinese uprising against foreign imperialists- The Boxer Rebellion
    • some of the countries wanted to use the rebellion as an excuse for carving China into colonies for themselves
      • Hay announced U.S. opposition to this plan in his 1900 Open Door notes
        • He asked all countries to respect the territorial integrity of China
      • Repeated the demand for equal trading and investment opportunities there
  • The Open Door notes became a cornerstone of U.S. policy in Asia
    • Helped shape the U.S.’s response to the Japanese drive to conquer China in the 1930‘s
yellow journalism
Yellow Journalism
  • Watch Yellow Journalism video
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0mjkLPvrQM&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
  • Answer the following questions:
    • Who is Hearst?
    • What is yellow journalism?
    • How is it different than other journalism?
  • Use page 646 of your article to help you add to your answers
yellow journalism1
Yellow Journalism
  • Two newspapers, one by Pulitzer (New York World) and one by William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) were competing for readers.
    • They were very critical of the Spanish
    • Their harsh words and stories were part of their competition for readers
  • This use of sensational and exaggerated stories to attract readers is known as Yellow Journalism
  • Pulitzer began the practice of yellow journalism, but Hearst became better at exaggerating the stories to sell papers
  • Beginning of American tabloids
objectives questions1
Objectives & Questions
  • Explain how Yellow Journalism impacted the Spanish American in a paragraph
  • Summarize the Spanish American War and its impacts on America.
  • Summarize how and why the Panama Canal was built in a paragraph.
  • Questions to answer:
    • Why did the U.S. abandon her traditional isolationist foreign policy?
    • How did the U.S. expand its influence in the world?
    • What objectives underlay U.S. foreign policy in Asia and Latin America?
crisis over cuba
Crisis over Cuba
  • Cuba was a colony of Spain and was struggling to gain its independence from Spain
    • The Cubans revolted against Spanish rule in 1895
    • Spanish authorities brutally attempted to stop the rebellion
    • Many Americans sympathized with Cuba’s struggle thinking it was similar to the American Revolution
    • Monroe Doctrine opposed European colonies in the Americas
  • Public opinion in the U.S. turned against the Spanish because of yellow-journalism
    • The American press widely reported on the conflict b/w America and Spain
    • The Press often sided with the Cubans and attempted to convince the American public to side with the rebels
      • William Randolph Hearst=Journal
      • Joseph Pulitzer=World
      • Both featured daily accounts of Spanish atrocities
  • President McKinley did not want to intervene in Cuba
    • He sent the battleship Maine to Havana to protect the lives and property of Americans on Cuba
spanish american war
Spanish American War
  • Events that led to war:
    • Hearst published a private letter the Spanish minister to the US had written to a friend that called the president “weak”- this outraged many Americans
    • US sent the battleship Maine to Havana to protect Americans
      • On February 15, 1898 the Maine exploded and sank with a loss of 266 men
      • The cause of the explosion was unclear, many Americans blamed Spain and “Remember the Maine,” quickly became a rallying cry for angry Americans
      • President McKinley requested $50 million to prepare for war and Congress approved
      • April 20, Congress declared Cuba independent and demanded Spain leave the island in 3 days
      • Spain declared war on April 24, 1898
crisis over cuba1
Crisis over Cuba
  • The yellow press immediately accused the Spanish of blowing up the ship
    • The public demanded revenge
  • Congress passed the Teller Amendment
    • Proclaimed that the U.S. had no desire to overtake Cuba and would leave the island as soon as its independence was ensured
    • Teller Amendment
slide22

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Abzd41k_OhQ&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=activehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Abzd41k_OhQ&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active

spanish american war1
Spanish American War
  • Read the article/front page of the USS Maine
  • Answer the following questions:
    • How long after the explosion of the Maine was this article written?
    • What does the headline of the article suggest about the Newspaper’s point of view?
    • Upon what type of evidence does the New York Journal base its claims?
spanish american war2
Spanish American War
  • Details of the war:
    • Most expected victory in Cuba to come quickly
    • US army was unprepared to train/supply the soldiers needed for the war
    • Teddy Roosevelt organized a group of soldiers- Rough Riders
      • American newspapers made him a hero
    • First battle was in the Philippines- Spanish surrendered the Philippines 2 months later
    • US blockaded the Cuban harbor, allowing US troops to come ashore and help the Cuban rebels
    • The US soldiers were able to defeat Spanish forces on the ground, and the blockade destroyed every Spanish ship, leading to the Spanish to surrender August 12, 1898.
spanish american war3
Spanish American War
  • Results of the War:
    • The treaty b/w Spain and America placed Puerto Rico, Guam, Cuba, and the Philippines under US control
      • Philippines: Annexed after the Spanish American War
        • America agreed to pay $20 million in return for the Philippines
      • Puerto Rico was annexed by the United States.
    • The United States asserted her right to intervene in Cuban affairs
      • Platt Amendment- limited Cuba’s freedom to make treaties, required Cuba to sell or lease land to the US for naval bases, and authorized the US to intervene in Cuban affairs
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IU5l4yQCpMM&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
the spanish american war
The Spanish-American War
  • Contrary to the Teller Amendment, the U.S. occupied Cuba from 1898 to 1902
  • The U.S. withdrew its forces only after Cuba agreed to the conditions set forth in the 1901 Platt Amendment
    • It limited Cuba’s sovereignty by:
      • Reserving to the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuba
      • The U.S. could maintain a naval base on Cuba
    • Although the Platt Amendment was abrogated in 1934, the United States still retains the base at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba
critics of empire
Critics of Empire
  • Some Americans were horrified by their nation’s actions in the Spanish-American War
  • They founded the Anti-Imperialist League
    • Pointed out that imposing U.S. rule on other peoples by military force violated the principles of human equality and liberty championed in our own Declaration of Independence
  • Some members of the Anti-Imperialist League:
    • Carl Schurz (civil-service reformer)
    • E.L. Godkin (civil-service reformer)
    • William Jennings Bryan (ag. spokesman)
    • Jane Addams (settlement house founder)
    • Mark Twain (writer)
    • William James (writer)
  • Despite the League’s efforts, the Senate ratified the treaty annexing the Philippines
  • In 1900 pro-expansionist McKinley again defeated anti-imperialist Bryan for the presidency
panama canal
Panama Canal
  • Using pg. 511-512 from the article I gave you at the beginning of last class, take notes explaining how Teddy Roosevelt helped get the Panama Canal built, and why he wanted to build it.
  • Define “Dollar Diplomacy” and how/why it was used by America.
the panama canal hardball u s diplomacy
The Panama Canal: Hardball U.S. Diplomacy
  • For commercial and strategic reasons, the U.S. wanted to build a canal across Panama
panama canal1
Panama Canal
  • A canal would cut 8,000 miles off the voyage and join the Atlantic & Pacific
  • Roosevelt was a strong supporter of a Central American canal
    • Tried to organize a treaty with Colombia, where the US would pay $10 million plus $250,000 a year for a 99-year lease on a five-mile-wide strip of land
    • Colombia refused- Hoped for more $$$$
  • Pres. Roosevelt then conspired with the directors of a bankrupt French company that had been trying earlier to build a canal
    • The company hoped to profit from the U.S.’s taking over its land lease
    • Together they helped support Panama gain their independence from Columbia
the panama canal
The Panama Canal
  • Roosevelt sent a U.S. warship in 1903 to see to it that the uprising succeeded
  • The U.S. then recognized Panama’s independence and negotiated a treaty leasing the land
      • Negotiated a treaty to build the canal, adding another 10 miles
  • The U.S. Army was in charge of engineering the canal
    • Canal opened August 15, 1914
  • The imperialist methods Roosevelt used to seize the area created lasting ill toward the U.S. in Latin America
roosevelt and taft assert u s power in latin america and asia
Roosevelt and Taft Assert U.S. Power in Latin America and Asia
  • Roosevelt and Taft believed that the U.S. had to play an active role in world affairs
    • They believed that they had to protect American interests in Latin America and Asia
  • Dollar Diplomacy
    • Taft concentrated particularly on promoting U.S. commercial interests abroad
dollar diplomacy
Dollar Diplomacy
  • President Taft urged American banks and businesses to invest in Latin America. He promised that the United States would step in if unrest threatened their investments.
  • Taft thought he could influence events and encourage stability
  • In 1911 the US helped Nicaragua get private loans from American banks in order to pay its national debt
  • The US also helped Honduras get out of Debt
roosevelt and taft assert u s power in latin america and asia1
Roosevelt and Taft Assert U.S. Power in Latin America and Asia
  • Roosevelt Corollary- Read article
    • An addition to the Monroe Doctrine
    • Was given in response to a threat that European nations might invade Dominican Republic to collect debts
    • 1904
    • The Corollary warned European nations not to intervene in the Western Hemisphere
    • The U.S. would act as policeman in Latin America
      • Keeping order there and seeing that finances were handled properly and debts repaid
roosevelt and taft assert u s power in latin america and asia2
Roosevelt and Taft Assert U.S. Power in Latin America and Asia
  • Citing his corollary, Roosevelt had U.S. officials take over the Dominican Republic’s customs service and manage its foreign debt
  • Taft, also using the corollary, sent marines into Nicaragua to protect U.S. investors there
    • He also keep in power a govt. friendly to U.S. business interests
    • The marines occupied Nicaragua from 1912-1933
conclusion
Conclusion
  • U.S. foreign policy in Asia and Latin America from 1900 to 1914 showed that the U.S. was willing to become involved in foreign affairs to:
    • keep order
    • Encourage the kinds of govts. the U.S. approved
    • Protect U.S. economic interests
  • These same tendencies would later pull the country into WWI
homework
Homework
  • Read AMSCO ch. 21
  • Answer the following FRQ question- you have 35 minutes. Write the time it took you do it on your paper.
    • Analyze the extent to which the Spanish-American War was a turning point in American foreign policy.