actinopterygian relationships iii biology of fishes 10 4 2012 n.
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Actinopterygian Relationships III Biology of Fishes 10.4.2012. Overview. Review ( Actinopterygian Relationships II) Actinopterygian Relationships III : Acanthopterygii Exam I Review. Actinopterygian Relationships III. Teleostei. Eut eleostei. Neot eleostei.

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overview
Overview

Review (Actinopterygian Relationships II)

Actinopterygian Relationships III : Acanthopterygii

Exam I Review

actinopterygian relationships iii
Actinopterygian Relationships III

Teleostei

Euteleostei

Neoteleostei

  • Holostei(gars, bowfins)
  • Teleostei (teleosts“modern fishes”)

- Elopomorpha(eels, tarpons, relatives)

- Osteoglossomorpha(bonytongues)

-Clupeomorpha(herrings, shad, relatives)

-Ostariophysi(minnows, catfishes, characins, relatives)

-Protacanthopterygii

Acanthomorpha

-Paracanthopterygii

-Acanthopterygii

actinopterygian relationships1
ActinopterygianRelationships

Acanthomorpha

  • Neoteleostei
    • Acanthomorpha(teleosts“modern fishes”)

- Paracanthopterygii(cods, anglers, cavefishes)

- Acanthopterygii

actinopterygian relationships2
ActinopterygianRelationships
  • Paracanthopterygii(cods, anglers, cavefishes, relatives)
  • Acanthopterygii (spiny-finned fishes)

- Mugilomorpha(mullets)

-Atherinomorpha(silversides, flyingfishes, liverbearers and rel.)

-Percomorpha (perch-shaped fishes)

actinopterygian relationships3
Actinopterygian Relationships
  • Acanthopterygii(spiny-finned fishes)
    • Most diverse group of bony fishes; ~15,000 species
    • Two major synapomorphies
      • Ascending process – dorsal extension of premaxilla
      • Most highly developed pharyngeal dentition and function based on new muscle and bone attachments
    • Ctenoid scales
    • Physoclistous gas bladder
    • 2 dorsal fins (1 spiny-rayed, 1 soft-rayed)
    • Pelvic and anal fin spines
    • Pelvic fins forward, pectoral fins laterally positioned
actinopterygian relationships4
Actinopterygian Relationships
  • Acanthopterygii(spiny-finned fishes)
    • Most advanced fishes, dominate shallow productive habitats of marine and many freshwater environments
    • Controversial phylogeny (follow Nelson 2006)
actinopterygian relationships5
ActinopterygianRelationships
  • Paracanthopterygii(cods, anglers, cavefishes, relatives)
  • Acanthopterygii (spiny-finned fishes)

- Mugilomorpha(mullets)

- Atherinomorpha(silversides, flyingfishes, liverbearers, and rel.)

-Percomorpha (perch-shaped fishes)

actinopterygian relationships6
Actinopterygian Relationships
  • Mugilomorpha (mullets)
    • Nearshore, catadromous; ~80 species
    • “primitive” acanthopterygians (cycloid or intermediate cycloid-ctenoid scales); no pelvic girdle attachment
    • Detritivores, feed on organic silt
    • Important food fish
actinopterygian relationships7
ActinopterygianRelationships
  • Paracanthopterygii(cods, anglers, cavefishes, relatives)
  • Acanthopterygii (spiny-finned fishes)

- Mugilomorpha(mullets)

- Atherinomorpha(silversides, flyingfishes, liverbearers and rel.)

-Percomorpha (perch-shaped fishes)

actinopterygian relationships8
Actinopterygian Relationships
  • Atherinomorpha(silversides, flyingfishes, liverbearers and relatives)
    • Surface-dwellers, marine and freshwater, ~1500 species
    • Unique protruding upper jaw, superior mouths
    • Internal fertilization and live-bearing in many species
    • Some unisexual (all female) species
actinopterygian relationships9
ActinopterygianRelationships
  • Paracanthopterygii(cods, anglers, cavefishes, relatives)
  • Acanthopterygii (spiny-finned fishes)

- Mugilomorpha(mullets)

- Atherinomorpha(silversides, flyingfishes, liverbearers and rel.)

-Percomorpha (perch-shaped fishes)

actinopterygian relationships11
Actinopterygian Relationships
  • Percomorpha(“perch-shaped” fishes)
    • Most advanced clade of fishes
    • ~13,000 species; primarily marine, many successful freshwater
    • Primary synapomorphyis anteriorly placed pelvic girdle attached to pectoral girdle directly or via ligament
    • Pelvic fin with anterior spine and 5 soft rays (typically)
percomorpha basal groups
Percomorpha(basal groups)
  • Stephanoberyciformes (whalefishes)
  • Beryciformes (squirrelfishes)
  • Zeiformes (dories)
  • Gasterosteiformes (sticklebacks, seahorses)
  • Synbranchiformes (swamp eels)
  • Scorpaeniformes (scorpionfishes, sculpins, relatives)
percomorpha advanced groups
Percomorpha(advanced groups)
  • Perciformes (perch-like fishes)
  • Pleuronectiformes (flatfishes)
  • Tetraodontiformes (puffers, triggerfishes, relatives)
percomorpha basal groups1
Percomorpha(basal groups)

whalefishes

dories

squirrelfishes

swamp eels

scorpionfishes, sculpins

seahorses, sticklebacks

percomorpha advanced groups1
Percomorpha(advanced groups)

Perciformes

Pleuronectiformes

Tetraodontiformes

exam i review
Exam I Review
  • Exam Format (multiple choice, short answer, short essay)
  • Phylogenetic Relationships
  • Terms (monophyletic, synapomorphy, catadromous)
  • Examples of major concepts, relationships & groups
    • “salmon are anadromous…”
    • “two major factors that have contributed to the success of teleosts”
    • “mobile maxilla is important because…”
  • Journal Articles
exam i review1
Exam I Review
  • Phylogeny
    • Complete Craniate Phylogeny
    • Know common and scientific names*
    • Start at Hagfishes (Myxiniformes*)
    • End at Percomorpha* (Perch-shaped fishes)
    • Know some examples of component groups
  • Group Project topics due Thursday 10.11.2012
complete phylogeny
Complete Phylogeny

CRANIATES

Chondrichthyes

Sarcopterygii

Vertebrates

Osteichthyes

Actinopterygii

complete phylogeny1
Complete Phylogeny
  • Hagfishes
  • Vertebrates
    • Lampreys
    • Gnathostomes (possess jaws)

- Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes)

- Osteichthyes (bony fishes)

Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes)

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)

complete phylogeny2
Complete Phylogeny
  • Sarcopterygii(lobe fins)
  • Actinopterygii(ray fins)

- Cladistia(bichirs, reedfish)

- Chondrostei(sturgeons, paddlefishes)

-Holostei(gars, bowfins)

-Teleostei(teleosts, “modern fishes”)

complete phylogeny3
Complete Phylogeny

Teleostei

Euteleostei

Neoteleostei

  • Holostei(gars, bowfins)
  • Teleostei (teleosts“modern fishes”)

- Elopomorpha(eels, tarpons, relatives)

- Osteoglossomorpha(bonytongues)

-Clupeomorpha(herrings, shad, relatives)

-Ostariophysi(minnows, catfishes, characins, relatives)

-Protacanthopterygii

Acanthomorpha

-Paracanthopterygii

-Acanthopterygii

complete phylogeny4
Complete Phylogeny
  • Paracanthopterygii(cods, anglers, cavefishes, relatives)
  • Acanthopterygii (spiny-finned fishes)

- Mugilomorpha(mullets)

- Atherinomorpha(silversides, flyingfishes, liverbearers and rel.)

-Percomorpha (perch-shaped fishes)