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象寄杂叙 : “ 译犹不译也 ” 的发生. 吴以义 复旦大学历史系 iiu2@fudan.edu.cn. 释题. 象寄就是翻译的意思 , 《礼记 ∙ 王制》:达其志 , 通其欲 , 东方曰寄 , 南方曰象。雅则雅矣 , 别人看不懂 , 还是需要再转述说明。翻译所做的 , 就是这么一回事。这件事不容易做。用中国文字翻译西洋作品 , 要如梁启超所要求的 , 不犯“失西意”或“梗华读”的毛病 , 两 厢 兼顾 , 则更是难上加难。. I , 理论.

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slide1

象寄杂叙:“译犹不译也”的发生

吴以义

复旦大学历史系

iiu2@fudan.edu.cn

slide2
释题

象寄就是翻译的意思,《礼记 ∙ 王制》:达其志,通其欲,东方曰寄,南方曰象。雅则雅矣,别人看不懂,还是需要再转述说明。翻译所做的,就是这么一回事。这件事不容易做。用中国文字翻译西洋作品,要如梁启超所要求的,不犯“失西意”或“梗华读”的毛病,两厢兼顾,则更是难上加难。

slide3
I, 理论

中国翻译界的第一人严复早就提出了翻译的最低的和最高的要求,即“信达雅”。但是一个仅仅受过历史学训练的人来向研究和从事翻译的专门人才谈论信达雅,不啻是“班门弄斧” 。让我们就从“班门弄斧”谈起。

slide4
一分钟小测验:“班门弄斧”怎么译成英文?

推荐一种练习的方法:

双向翻译

slide6
在不同个体之间的传递

传递的内容

传递的方式

语言

图像

符号

  • 信息
  • 感觉
  • 思想

传输中的失真:

编码的失真,传输过程的失真,解码的失真

slide8
图像:传递的内容和思想

注意洗礼教堂的马赛克 (c. 1225) 耶稣像中脚的画法; 并留意和Botticelli 在 LePrimavera(1482)中的画法作对比。

slide9
语言翻译造成失真的主要问题是

语句:

词汇和表达方式不是一一对应的

概念:

在不同的文化构架中,概念是不对应的

slide10
语言保真的困难

王国维论辜译《中庸》, 谈到“天”这个概念的翻译,称“无论何人不能精密译之,外国语中之无我国『天』字之相当字,与我国语中之无 god相当字无异。吾国之所谓天,非苍苍者之谓,又非天帝之谓,实介于二者之间,而以苍苍之物质具天帝之精神者也”, 就说得很透彻。

法文中的一个词 doux根据上下文,可以翻译成很多意思:于蜜糖是“甘甜的,”于羊毛是“柔软的,”于味道是“清淡的,”于记忆是“易逝的,”于山坡是“平缓的,”于声音是“悦耳的,”于光线是“柔和的,”于老人是“安详的,”等等。对于法国人来说,doux是一种单一的东西,涵盖上述各个方面;对他们来说,这是一种感觉,这种感觉不是我们生活在法语以外的人能亲切体会到的,我们只能通过这种相对笨拙的割裂来考察它的各个方面。

slide11
再来一个测验:“夫妻肺片”怎么译成英文

离纽约大学不远的 LaGuadiaPlaze上有一家中餐馆,因为要做洋人的生意,菜单上所有的名目都很小心地译成了英文,其中一道叫做Romeo and Juliet,“罗密欧与朱丽叶”。尽管我对自己的理解力和想象力通常还有些信心,这道菜还颇是让我为难了很久。不得已,请教店东,方知原来是“夫妻肺片”。当时很有些《水浒》里常见的“叫声惭愧”的感觉。这件事情可以小作讨论。把莎士比亚请出来帮助翻译“夫妻肺片”,雅则雅矣,但恐怕洋人国人都没法悟出这究竟是个什么玩意儿,恰如严复所说,“虽译犹不译也”。但是如果店东反过来请教我,问我是否另有高译,我恐怕也只能交白卷。问题不在译得好译得坏,而在于这样东西本身:西菜中根本没有这么一样东西,甚至于根本没有类似的东西,无论怎么研究都是白费心机,说不清楚。

slide12
高保真传输的困难

[《庄子秋水》]:

庄子与惠子游于濠梁之上。庄子曰:鯈鱼出游从容,是鱼之乐也。

惠子曰:子非鱼,焉知鱼之乐?

庄子曰:子非我,安知我不知鱼之乐?

惠子曰:我非子,固不知子矣;子固非鱼也,子之不知鱼之乐全矣!

授体和受体其实是隔绝的

salvation is promised
Salvation is promised

Matthews7 7 Ask, and it will be given to you; search, and you will find; knock, and the door will be opened for you.8For everyone who asks receives, and everyone who searches finds, and for everyone who knocks, the door will be opened.9Is there anyone among you who, if your child asks for bread, will give a stone?10Or if the child asks for a fish, will give a snake?

slide16
中译圣经的两个版本比较

合和本,马太福音,1906

杨周翰译本,1996,54-55页

7:7你们只需祈求,就会给你们;你们只需寻找,你们就会找到;你们只需敲一敲,大门就会为你们打开。7:8 每个人只要祈求,就能得到,只要寻找,就能找到,只要敲门,门就会打开。7:9你们之中有谁,如果儿子问他要面包,会给他一块石头呢?7:10如果他要一条鱼,会给他一条蛇呢?

7:7你们祈求、就给你们。寻找、就寻见。叩门、就给你们开门。7:8因为凡祈求的、就得着。寻找的、就寻见。叩门的、就给他开门。7:9你们中间、谁有儿子求饼、反给他石头呢。7:10求鱼、反给他蛇呢。

kjv 1611
KJV,1611

New Living Bible,1970s

7Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you: 8 For every one that askethreceiveth; and he that seekethfindeth; and to him that knocketh it shall be opened. 9 Or what man is there of you, whom if his son ask bread, will he give him a stone? 10 Or if he ask a fish, will he give him a serpent?

7Keep on asking, and you will receive what you ask for. Keep on seeking, and you will find. Keep on knocking, and the door will be opened to you. 8 For everyone who asks, receives. Everyone who seeks, finds. And to everyone who knocks, the door will be opened. 9You parents–if your children ask for a loaf of bread, do you give them a stone instead? 10 Or if they ask for a fish, do you give them a snake? Of course not!

1 corinthian 13 4 13 7
第二个例子:1Corinthian13:4- 13:7

推荐一种练习的方法:

比较不同的译本

slide19

1534

1611

William Tyndale’s translation

AV=KJV

Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vauteth not itself, is not puffed up. Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; Rejoiceth not in inquiity, but rejoiceth in the truth; Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things , hopeth all things, endureth all things.

Love suffrethlonge, and is corteous. Love envieth not. Love doth not forwardly, swelleth not deadleth not deadleth not dishonestly, seketh not her awne, is not provoked to anger, thynketh not evyll, reioyseth not in iniquite; but reioyseth in the trueth, suffreth all thynge, beleveth all thynges, hopeth all thynges, endureth in all thynges.

slide20

1901

1970

ASV

New American Bible

Love is patient, love is kind. It is not jealous, (love) is not pompous, it is not inflated, it is not rude, it does not seek its own interests, it is not quick-tempered, it does not brood over injury, it does not rejoice over wrongdoing but rejoices with the truth. It bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things. Love never fails. If there are prophecies, they will be brought to nothing; if tongues, they will cease; if knowledge, it will be brought to nothing.

13:4 Love suffereth long, and is kind; love envieth not; love vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, 13:5 doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not its own, is not provoked, taketh not account of evil; 13:6 rejoi-ceth not in unrighteousness, but rejoiceth with the truth; 

13:7 beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things.

slide21

1976

1996

Oxford Bible Study, New York: Oxford Univ. Press, rpr. 1992

New Living Bible

Love is patient and kind. Love is not jealous or boastful or proud or rude. Love does not demand its own way. Love is not irritable, and it keeps no record of when it has been wronged. It is never glad about injustice but rejoice whenever the truth wins out. Love never gives up, never loses faith, is always hopeful, and endures through every circumstance.

Love is patient and kind. Love envies no one, is never boastful, never conceited, never rude; love is never selfish, never quick to take offence. Love keeps no score of wrongs, takes no pleasure in the sins of others, but delights in the truth. There is nothing love cannot face; there is no limit to its faith, its hope, its endurance.

slide22
中译和合本

1904

13:4 爱是恒久忍耐、又有恩慈。爱是不嫉妒。爱是不自夸、不张狂。13:5不作害羞的事,不求自己的益处,不轻易发怒,不计算人的恶。13:6不喜欢不义,只喜欢真理。13:7凡事包容,凡事相信,凡事盼望,凡事忍耐。13:8爱是永不止息。

19 世纪,在中国的外国教会各自出版自己的中译 《圣经》,彼此在用词和翻译原则上都有差别。传教士忧虑中国信徒面对诸多译本无所适从,希望有一部联合译本。1890 年的传教士大会,决定以深文理、浅文理、官话翻译,以“《圣经》唯一,译本则三”为目标。美国长老会的狄考文、美国公理会的富善、中国内地会的鲍康宁、英国伦敦会的文书田及鹿依士等人根据英文《修订标准版圣经》RSV译出《官话和合本》,于1904-1906年间出版。

zephyrus in chaucer 1380
Zephyrus in Chaucer,1380

Whan that Aprill with his shouressoote

The droghte of March hath perced to the roote,

And bathed every veine in swichlicour

Of which vertuengendred is the flour,

WhanZephirus eek with his sweet breeth

Inspired hath in every holt and heth

The tendrecroppes, and the yongesonne

Hath in the Ram his halve coursyronne, …

Geoffry Chaucer, Canterbury Tales, 1475, Fragment i, Prologue, ll. 1-8, Original text, ed. ◎ Jill Mann, 2005

When in April the sweet showers fall

And pierce the drought of March to the root, and all

The veins are bathed in liquor of such power

As brings about the engendering of the flower,

When also Zephyrus with his sweet breath

Exhales an air in every grove and heath

Upon the tender shoots, and the young sun

His half-course in the sign of the Ram has run, …

Trans. NevillCoghill, Penguin Book, 2003

zephyrus
方重译 Zephyrus

[《坎特伯雷故事》,方重译,北京:人民文学,2008,总引]:当四月的甘霖渗透了三月枯竭的根须, ……当和风吹香,使得山林莽原遍吐着绿条新芽,……

原注:和风原文是 Zephirus, 照原义应译为“西风”,但若说春天而吹西风,会引起读者的错觉。

[ZephyrusinSandroBotticelli’sLaprimavera,1482]:Flora, Goddess of Flowers and Spring, appears clad in garlands of flowers. Next to Flora is the nymph Chloris; she is pursued by Zephyrus, God of Wind, who has a burning passion for her. Ovid (43BC-c.18) describes, “As she talks, her lips breathe spring roses: I was Chloris, who am now called Flora.”

slide27
中土文学中的“西风”形象

[唐] 李商隐,王十二兄…,秋霖腹疾俱难遣,万里西风夜正长。

[宋] 蒋捷,虞美人,壮年听雨客舟中。江阔云低、断雁叫西风。

[元] 马致远,天净沙,古道西风瘦马,夕阳西下,断肠人在天涯。

[清] 纳兰,浣溪纱,谁念西风独自凉,萧萧黄叶闭疏窗,沉思往事立斜阳。

slide28
中文是“东风”

[李商隐·无题]:相见时难别亦难,东风无力百花残。

[秦观·望海潮]:梅英疏淡,冰澌溶泄,东风暗换年华。金谷俊游,铜驼巷陌,新晴细履平沙。长记误随车,正絮翻蝶舞,芳思交加。柳下桃蹊,乱分春色到人家。

[辛弃疾·青玉案]:东风夜放花千树,更吹落,星如雨。

zephyrus in greek myth
Zephyrus in Greek Myth

Zephyrusis the Greek god of the west wind, the gentlest, fructifying wind, the messenger of spring.  He was the husband of his sister Iris, the goddess of the rainbow. He abducted another of his sisters, Chloris, and gave her the domain of flowers.  One of the surviving myths has it that Zephyrus fell in love with Hyacinth, a handsome and athletic Spartanprince, and courted him, and so didApollo. The two competed for the boy, but he chose Apollo, driving Zephyrus mad with jealousy. Later, catching Apollo and Hyacinth playing a Frisbee, Zephyrus blew a gust of wind at them, striking the boy in the head with the falling discus. When Hyacinth died, Apollo created the hyacinth flower from his blood. Apollo was furious, but Eros protected Zephyrus, as the act was committed in the name of love, on the condition that the wind god served Eros forever.

1875, oil painting by

William-AdolpheBouguereau

slide30
小结

推荐一种练习的方法:

词源学研究

在不同文化的接触和交流中,翻译当然是至关重要的一个环节。对中国文化来说,因为地理环境等特别的因素,这种交流在百多年前还比较少见。至于近代,为了抵抗或者消化突然如潮水般涌来的西洋文化,翻译成了一门显学。但是,在翻译中文化差异所造成的变形常常是不可避免的,有些时候甚至是必要的。但是何时尚『信』,何时要『雅』,何时可以『达』一下,则很难有个明白统一的答案。这样看来,翻译实在不是一个简单的语言转换,而是一种重新理解重新创造的过程,其中文化背景的制约和导向当是很明显的了。

slide31
信达雅的范例:苏曼殊译拜伦《去国行》,1914信达雅的范例:苏曼殊译拜伦《去国行》,1914

A few short hours and he will rise,

To give the morrow birth;

And I shall hail the main and skies,

But not my mother earth.

Deserted is my own good hall,

Its hearth is desolate;

Wild weeds are gathering on the wall,

My dog howls at the gate.

日出几刹那

明日瞬息间

海天一清啸

旧乡长弃捐

吾家已荒凉

炉灶无余烟

墙壁生藁蓠

犬吠空门边