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European Exploration Spain, France, England: Attempts to establish colonies in North America. Themes. Why establish colonies? Actions of Spain, France, and England Interactions between Europeans and Native Americans

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european exploration spain france england attempts to establish colonies in north america

European ExplorationSpain, France, England:Attempts to establish colonies in North America

  • Why establish colonies?
  • Actions of Spain, France, and England
  • Interactions between Europeans and Native Americans
  • Compare and contrast different European settlements and their results for both colonists and Indian peoples
why travel to new world
Why Travel to “New World”?
  • 1.Economic – Trade route to Asia: cinnamon, nutmeg and sugar.
  • Gold, silk, jewels, and land
  • 2. Religious – Goal: Escape religious persecution.
  • Spread Christianity to new areas.
why travel to new world cont d
Why Travel to “New World?” (cont’d)
  • 3. Curiosity/Adventure
  • 4. Forced: African slaves

- The largest forced migration in human history.

  • The Reconquista – a military conquest from 718 – 1492. Moors vs. Spanish Christian rulers
  • It was not until the Battle of Granada that Spain was not free of Moors and united
  • Queen Isabella of Castile marries Ferdinand II of Aragon
  • Castile and Aragon were the most powerful regions of Spain
trade routes from europe to asia 1492
Trade Routes from Europe to Asia (1492)
  • With Spain united, they now need more money to have a stable national economy
  • Goal: Find a shorter route to wealth of the East.
  • Silk Road closed due to Muslim influence
christopher columbus
Christopher Columbus
  • Columbus sailed in 1492; convinced Spanish monarchs and arrived in Bahamas.
  • He was not the first European to cross the ocean.
  • Permanent settlements followed Columbus 'voyages.
  • establishes a base of operations in Hispaniola
  • From Hispaniola:

- Cortes: Mesoamerica (Aztecs)

- Francisco Pizarro: South America (Inca Empire)

- Juan Ponce de Leon: discovers Florida

- Hernando de Soto: Mississippi River

spain hernan cortes
Spain(Hernan Cortes)
  • Led about 600 soldiers who landed at Vera Cruz, Mexico in 1519.
  • When Cortes landed in Vera Cruz he destroyed the ships because he would rather die trying to find gold rather than go to Spain as a failure.
  • De Aguilar – translator for Cortes who informs him that many tribes hate the Aztecs.
  • Cortes begins forming alliances with neighboring tribes
spain hernan cortes1
Spain(Hernan Cortes)
  • In Tenochtitlan, capital of Mexican Empire, the emperor Montezuma has heard of these strange creatures that are headed his way
aztecs and spanish
Aztecs and Spanish

Spanish Success

  • Aztecs believed Cortez was the god Quetzalcoatl
  • By Cortes showing them gold and blasts the Spanish were allowed to enter the capital.
  • Spanish worshiped gold which led to them being kicked out of the city.
aztecs and spanish1
Aztecs and Spanish
  • Spanish worshiped gold which led to them being kicked out of the city.
  • Cortes also took Montezuma under arrest which angered the entire city
  • In 1521, Cortes and about 100 men fought their way out of Tenochtitlan and retreated
  • In the Spring of 1521 Cortes and tens of thousands of Indian allies laid siege to the Mexican capital
aztecs and spanish2
Aztecs and Spanish

Indians with Smallpox

Disease, Warfare

Disease decimated native populations in Mexico

Differing views concerning warfare

Technology: Horses and gunpowder

By 1521 Aztecs were defeated and the Spanish created the new capital city

Mexico City

additional spanish conquest
Additional Spanish Conquest
  • Spanish conquistadors quickly fanned out after the fall of Tenochtitlan in search of gold
  • Francisco Pizarro – conquered the Incan empire in Peru
  • In 1532, Pizarro had an army of about 200 men captured the Incan emperor Atahualpa and held him hostage
  • As ransom, the Incas gave Pizarro the largest treasure of gold and silver
additional spanish conquest1
Additional Spanish Conquest
  • Juan Ponce de Leon sailed to Florida coast in 1513
  • After hearing of Cortes success, de Leon went back to Florida in 1521 to find riches
  • He was quickly killed in a battle with Calusa Indians
additional spanish conquest2
Additional Spanish Conquest
  • In 1526, Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon explored the Atlantic coast north of Florida and established San Miguel de Gualdape, the first Spanish settlement in what is now the United States
  • In 1528, Panfilo de Narvaez surveyed the Gulf coast from Florida to Texas
  • His expedition ended when he shipwrecked near present-day Galveston, Texas
additional spanish conquest3
Additional Spanish Conquest
  • In 1539, Hernando de Soto, had participated in the conquering of Inca empire, set out with nine ships and 600 men to find another Peru (gold mine) in North America
  • Landing in Florida, de Soto only found and death and battles with the Natives already living there
  • In 1542, de Soto died of fever and was thrown into the Mississippi River
additional spanish conquest4
Additional Spanish Conquest
  • In 1540, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado had heard of the Seven Cities of Cibola
  • The city was rumored to be overflowing with gold
  • Coronado left that same year to northern Mexico
  • When he reached Cibola it turned out to be just a small pueblo
  • Coronado would travel as far as Kansas until 1542 when he decided to abandon his campaign
additional spanish conquest5
Additional Spanish Conquest
  • St. Augustine established in 1565 it became the first permanent European settlement in what would become the United States.
  • Spanish also established settlements in New Mexico in 1598.
spain in new mexico
Spain in New Mexico
  • San Esteban Rey, Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico
  • In 1598 Conquistadors led by Juan De Onate established a settlement in the upper Rio Grande Valley.
  • Spanish crushed villagers of Acoma
  • 800 were killed.
  • Surviving women and children were sold into slavery and men had one foot cut off.
pueblo revolt 1680
Pueblo Revolt(1680)
  • Spanish remained in New Mexico for several decades until a successful rebellion that forced Spanish to leave for several years.
  • Rebellion was brought on by Spanish attacking traditional Pueblo practices and forced them to practice Christianity.
  • Resistance to Spanish was led by Pope.
  • Indians in New Mexico united against the Spanish and captured the capital of Santa Fe.
  • Successfully drove them out of New Mexico for a time.
  • One of the most successful Indian uprisings in U.S. history
new spain
New Spain
  • Nueva Espania was created in the 16thCentury
  • The Spanish would establish a distinctive colonial culture
  • The distribution of conquered towns institutionalized the system of encomienda, which empowered the conquistadors to rule the Indians and the lands in and around their towns
  • The econmienda system was used more for labor than anything else
  • Establish of many missions in the area
new spain1
New Spain
  • Establish of many missions in the area
  • Many priests saw the encomienda system as having a negative effect on their religious beliefs
  • Friar Bartolome de Las Casas- against encomienda and the harsh treatment of Natives
  • The Spanish monarchy would later abolish encomienda in an effort to replace conquistadors with royal bureaucrats as the rulers in New Spain
  • This transformation is called repartimiento in 1549
new spain new ethnicities
New Spain(New Ethnicities)
  • By 1580, three distinct ethnicities were developing in New Spain
  • Peninsulares – people born on the Iberian Peninsula. Highest ranking social status in New Spain
  • Creoles- the children born in the New World to Spanish men and women
  • Mestizos- offspring of Spanish men and Indian women
new spain2
New Spain
  • By 1560, ALL the major centers of Indian civilization had been conquered, their leaders overthrown, their religion held in contempt, and their people forced to work for the Spaniards
france jacques cartier
France(Jacques Cartier)
  • Cartier explored east coast of Canada in 1530s
  • Sailed up the St. Lawrence River to what is now Montreal.
france samuel de champlain
France(Samuel de Champlain)
  • Establish Quebec in 1608 and became a key trading post
  • French specialized in fur trade.
  • Developed alliances with Native Americans which helped them maintain easy access to fur pelts.
  • Helped establish alliance with Huron and defeated their enemies.
  • Allowed access to interior Canada.
  • Protestant Reformation in 1517- Martin Luther criticizes the Catholic Church by writing his 95 thesis
  • Protestantism would reach England
  • Began in the late 15th Century when John Cabot explored North American coast
  • Settlement at Roanoke was undertaken in 1580s
england effects of protestant reformation
England(Effects of Protestant Reformation)
  • In 1533, King Henry VIII wished to obtain a divorce Queen Catherine of Aragon (Spain)
  • In the Catholic faith only the Pope was allowed to issue divorces
  • Spain being the most powerful Catholic nation, the Pope did not allow Henry to divorce his wife
  • Knowing of the Protestant movement, King Henry VIII founded the Anglican Church (Protestant) which makes him the head of the church
  • Signs the divorce himself
  • Protestant believer, Thomas Cromwell (new Chief Minister), begins to end all Catholic churches and monasteries by stripping them of all their wealth
england effects of protestant reformation1
England(Effects of Protestant Reformation)
  • In 1533, King Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn
  • In that same year, Anne gave birth to a daughter named Elizabeth
  • King Henry VIII later divorced Anne Boleyn and married Jane Seymour who finally gave him a son in 1537
  • King Henry VIII died in 1547 leaving his son Edward VI who later died in 1553
england effects of protestant reformation2
England(Effects of Protestant Reformation)
  • After Charles VI death, Mary would become queen and marry Phillip of Spain ( Catholic)
  • Protestants were outraged by a Catholic King
  • In 1558 Elizabeth became Queen (Protestant)
  • Elizabethan Age (1558 – 1603)
  • Queen Elizabeth I – wants both Catholics and Protestants in England to coexists
  • Tensions begin to rise in England as religions clash
  • In 1584, Sir Richard Hakluyt convinced Queen Elizabeth to start colonies by writing, “Discourse on Western Planting”
discourse on western planting
“Discourse on Western Planting”
  • England should consider to plant colonies in America
  • English colonies could as military bases if war was to erupt
  • These colonies could help displace Spain’s trade monopoly in the Atlantic
  • Colonies are potential wealth (gold & silver)
  • Colonies will also help solve population overcrowding
discourse on western planting aftermath
“Discourse on Western Planting”(Aftermath)
  • In 1585, Elizabeth commissions Sir. Walter Raleigh to start first English Colony
  • Roanoke – present day N. Carolina
  • Names all the area around the colony Virginia; in honor of the Virgin Queen
england roanoke
  • Sir Walter Raleigh was driving force behind Roanoke colony
  • First settled in 1585
  • Goal – base for pirate ships against Spanish
  • Relations with local Indians (Croatians) were poor
  • As war raged between England and Spain supply trips were interrupted
  • A supply ship returned in 1590 but Roanoke was abandoned.
  • No evidence of colonists were ever found
  • The colony was a failure
spanish armada 1588
Spanish Armada (1588)
  • In 1588, The Spanish Armada sailed from Spain to overthrow protestant England led by Queen Elizabeth I
  • Not having the navy to match the heavy warships of Spain, Queen Elizabeth conscripted pirates led by Sir Francis Drake
  • When the Armada arrived in the English channel a big storm destroyed half the Armada
  • Drake had much smaller and faster ships that would fire at the Spanish ships then retreat
  • The Spanish would suffer defeat
england jamestown
  • Founded in 1607 and first “successful” English colony
  • Organized by Virginia Company of London
  • Many fell ill from disease (middle of a swamp)
  • “Gentlemen” refused to work
  • Unable to survive on their own without supplies from outside sources.
england jamestown1
  • Settlers relied on Powhatan Indians for food
  • John Smith was captured by Chief Powhatan

- Smith was released or “saved” by Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas who would have around 10 years old.

  • Smith negotiated with Powhatans to obtain to more food
  • Smith implemented “No work; no food” policy
  • Smith was injured and forced to return to England following an accident in 1609
jamestown s troubles
Jamestown’s Troubles
  • May 1607 – 144 Settlers
  • January 1608 – 38 left

John Smith

  • December 1608 – 200 settlers
  • June 1609 – 188 left

Smith Leaves

  • December 1609 – 500 Settlers
  • May 1610 – 100 left alive
starving times
“Starving Times”
  • Many of the Colonists were having tremendous trouble trying to grow anything
  • With Indians in the woodlands many Colonists were afraid to go hunt
  • This led to the “Starving Times” in which people began to dig up bodies to eat.
  • This eventually led to the settlers killing and eating one another for survival
winter of 1610
Winter of 1610
  • New Colonists arrive
  • Sir. Thomas Gates and Sir. Thomas Dale take charge of Jamestown
  • Dale’s Laws

Thou shalt not eat each other

  • Those who do not work do not eat
  • Laziness is punishable by flogging
  • Use of foul language is punishable by death
  • Rebels will be broken on the wheel
punishments in jamestown england
Punishments in Jamestown/England
  • Jamestown began to adapt punishment methods from England
  • Witch- burned
  • Rebel- broken on the wheel
  • Treason/traitor- Drawn & Quartered
  • Common criminal- hanging
winter of 16101
Winter of 1610
  • A ship called, “The Deliverance” also arrives on shore carrying a person named John Rolfe.
  • Rolfe carries with him a seed that will forever change the course of history.
  • At that time tobacco is ONLY planted and sold by the Spanish Empire
  • Only Spanish colonies in the New World were allowed to have tobacco
  • However, John Rolfe gets his hands on some
  • There are many different stories as to how he got a hold of seeds, but no one really knows how
  • Jamestown is the perfect climate for tobacco
jamestown economic boom
Jamestown (Economic Boom)
  • There’s A LOT of money in tobacco, and England is addicted
  • Tobacco saved the colony
  • John Rolfe developed a new strain of tobacco that flourished in 1614
  • Rolfe married Pocahontas led to ease the tensions between Native Americans and settlers
  • 1st revenue generator for Jamestown; begins to show profit
  • In 1619, Jamestown in producing a profit and a stable government

- Board of directors

- elected representatives

  • 1st permanent and successful English colony in North America
  • Along with indentured servants, Africans began to colonize Jamestown as well.
  • These Africans are not slaves and even own land
anglo powhatan war 1622 1632
Anglo-Powhatan War(1622 – 1632)
  • Relations between settlers and Powhatans worsened when the death of Pocahontas and Powhatan took place.
  • In 1622 Opechancanough (Powhatan’s brother) took leadership of the Confederacy and struck back – killing about 25% of Jamestown’s settlers
  • Response from Jamestown: Destroy ALL Powhatans
  • Powhatan Confederacy originally included about 40,000; by war’s end about 500 remained
columbian exchange
Columbian Exchange
  • The range of items exchanged between Europeans and Native Americans following European settlement in the Western Hemisphere. (Plants, animals, diseases, ideas, and trade goods)
columbian exchange crops
Columbian Exchange: Crops

Native American Plants Taken to Europe

Old World Plants Brought to America









  • Beans
  • Bell and hot pepper
  • Maize (Corn)
  • Papaya and pineapple
  • Pumpkin and squash
  • Tomato
  • Wild rice
  • Sweet potato and white potato
  • Tobacco
columbian exchange horses
Columbian Exchange: Horses
  • Prior to having access to horses, mobility, and private property was limited
  • Horses, brought by the Spanish, spread to the Great Plains by mid-1700s
  • Impact for Native Americans was tremendous
  • Access to horses made hunting buffalo easier and efficient
columbian exchange disease
Columbian Exchange: Disease
  • Diseases brought by Europeans caused more death destroyed more of Indians society than any other single factor
  • Death rates could be up to 90 – 95%
  • Virgin Soil Epidemics – a population which previously had no contact with that disease, more than one disease could hit at the same time. Small pox, Chicken pox, influenza, measles, whooping cough
  • Syphilis spread to Europe where many became sick and died
  • Spain, England, and France established colonies
  • Native American and Europeans interacted in many ways in North America
  • Compare and contrast the actions of different nations and their results for both Europeans and Native Americans