The Americas: Pre-Columbian Empires to Colonies. MONDAY, NOVEMBER 11 TURN IN HOMEWORK Scavenger Hunt “The Americas” (14 clues) “Horrible Histories” Video (The Americas) Renaissance HW 1-4 (due Friday) Benchmark Test is Wednesday. The Americas: Pre-Columbian Empires to Colonies.
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The Americas: Pre-Columbian Empires to Colonies MONDAY, NOVEMBER 11 TURN IN HOMEWORK Scavenger Hunt “The Americas” (14 clues) “Horrible Histories” Video (The Americas) Renaissance HW 1-4 (due Friday) Benchmark Test is Wednesday
The Americas: Pre-Columbian Empires to Colonies This Power Point presentation goes with the Mastering the TEKS in World History book by Jarrett, Zimmer, and Killoran. Unit 4, Chapter 12
Essential Questions • What were the major social, economic, political, and cultural characteristics of the Maya, Inca, and Aztec civilizations? • What were the major achievements of the Maya, Inca, and Aztec civilizations?
The Empires of the Americas The Kellogg Institute
Background: Early Americans How did the Ice Age effect the population of the Americas? What if it had not occurred? • Nomadic Asians followed herd animals into the Americas. • American Peoples experienced their own Neolithic Revolution. • Pre-Columbian (before Columbus) Civilizations • Grew maize (corn) • Did not live in river valleys • Developed complex societies UCLA.edu
The Maya (1500 B.C. to 1546 A.D.) • Present day Guatemala • Each city had a chief who was half man and half god • Social Structure • Hereditary nobility (performed sacred ceremonies and assisted ruler) • Craftsmen (made goods for nobility) • Farmers (most people) • Warlike people who practiced human sacrifice Based on the information above, what type of religion did the Mayans have? Harvard.edu
Built magnificent cities with palaces, temples, and pyramids Developed a system of hieroglyphics or picture words Mayan Achievements What similarities does this civilization have to the Egyptian civilization? Complex system of math with use of zero, 365 day calendar Created colorful murals and created a popular ball game
The Aztecs (1200-1521) • Present day Mexico • Grew crops in “floating gardens” in wet, marshy lands • Complex Social Structure: • Emperor who was all powerful • Nobility served in government, army officers, and priesthood • Commoners who worked as farmers, fishermen, craftsmen, and warriors • Slaves • Religion: Polytheistic • Warlike group that conquered all surrounding tribes Wku.edu
Built complex temples that were aligned based on the movements of the sun and moon Created accurate calendars based on the sun wikipedia Aztec Achievements Compare the Aztecs to the Maya Calendar SFA.edu Built a large empire with a complex government structure and large cities Sacrificed humans to their main god, the Sun god. Sacrifice was need to keep the universe in motion UNM.edu wikimedia
The Inca Empire (122-1535) • Present day Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile • Terrace farmed and grew potatoes and other root crops • Raised llamas and alpacas for food, wool, and transportation Uncp.edu
Built thousands of miles of roads to connect the empire Excellent engineers that built buildings out of fitted stones Machu Picchu How are the Incas different from other Neolithic Civilizations you have studied? Inca Achievements Used a system of knotted and colored ropes (quipu) for communication instead of writing Built a large empire that covers present day Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile Inca Quipu Larco Museum Collection
Pre Columbian Art La balsa Muisca (The Muisca raft), a pre-Columbian gold sculpture representing the Muisca´s offerings of gold. Aztec jade mask depicting the god Xipe Totec Carved Mayan flint dagger. Describe Pre- Columbian art based on these works of art. The Aztec goddess Coatlicue, mother of earth. Inca Jar Mayan jade mask
Women’s Roles in Mesoamerica • Women: • Harvested grains • Prepared food (made maize into flour) • Cared for livestock • Cared for children and home • Some sold goods in markets • Some were artisans • Some worked as priestesses Does this suggest a strictly patriarchal society? Explain.
Americas Scavenger Hunt • Objective: • Students will use images to determine the impact of the civilizations of the Americas. • Directions: • Students will work in groups of four to six (a total of 6-8 groups) to correctly match images and clues related to the Americas. • Procedures: • Groups will elect one representative to go to the front of the room. • The teacher will hand each representative one clue to the various pictures posted around the room. Each representative will receive a different clue, so groups will start at different images around the room. (color coded clues work best to keep groups separate) • Students will remain at the front of the room with their clue until the teacher says “go”. • Once the teacher says “go”, the group reps can meet with their group members and find the image that corresponds with their clue. • Once they have matched the clue with the picture, they bring the clue back to the teacher. • If they have matched the clue correctly with the picture, they can move on to the next clue. If they have matched the clue incorrectly, they must go back to their source and rethink their answer. • The steps are repeated until all clues have been matched correctly by each group. • Once the class has finished the scavenger hunt, students will use the clues to answer the big picture questions about the civilizations of the Americas. Groups must be prepared to explain their answers to the class.
The Columbian Exchange Jarett Publishing
Why the Interest in Exploration? • Asia • Marco Polo’s writings sparked European interest in Asia • Asian goods, especially spices and silk, were sought after in Europe • The Silk Road was cut off by the Ottoman Turks • Renaissance: • A new spirit of inquiry arose • Europeans wanted to explore the oceans • New technology allowed for better navigation, especially the compass and triangular lateen sail Caravel: TAMU.edu What impact did the Ottoman Empire have on European Exploration?
The Age of Discovery • Both Spain and Portugal wanted to establish trade with Asia and financed overseas exploration • Spain’s Rulers, Ferdinand and Isabella: • Captured the Muslim areas of Spain • Expelled Spain’s Jewish Community • Reunited all of Spain under Christian Rule • Sough to spread Christianity across the world • Portugal • Prince Henry developed a lighter sailing ship • He sponsored expeditions along the coast of Africa Ferdinand and Isabella wedding portrait, unknown artist Why would European monarchs spend so much money on exploration?
Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) • Sea Captain from Genoa, Italy • Sailed west in 3 ships in hopes of finding a quicker route to Asia • Sponsored by the King and Queen of Spain • Found instead the Americas • This new land brought riches and raw materials to Europe Why would Columbus risk his life to find a new trade route?
The Columbian Exchange • Goods from America to Europe: • Tomatoes • Corn • Potatoes • Peppers • Squash • Pineapples • Chocolate • Tobacco • Turkey • Goods from Europe to America: • Wheat • Sugar • Cattle • Horses • Pigs • Sheep • Chickens • Grains
What other items might have been exchanged besides food and animals? Wikipedia.com
Later Explorers • Vasco de Gama (1460-1524): • Portuguese • Discovered an all water route to India • Sailed around the tip of Africa in 1497 • Ferdinand Megellan (1480-1521): • Portuguese • 1st to sail around the world (1519) What dangers might these men have faced in these voyages?
Other Explorers • England: • John Cabot: claimed parts of North America • France: • Jacques Cartier: explored the St. Lawrence River • Samuel Chaplain: explored the Great Lakes area • Robert de la Salle: explored the Mississippi River • Dutch: • Henry Hudson: explored Hudson Bay and Hudson River looking for a “Northwest Passage” to Asia
Lesson Suggestions • Explorers Activity • Nystrom Atlas Activity 44: Europeans Explore and Settle in the Americas
The Conquest of the Americas wikipedia
The Conquest of Mexico • 1519: Hernando Cortez sailed from Cuba to Mexico. • The Aztecs first thought the Spanish were gods • 1521 Cortez attacked the Aztecs with the help of other Native Americans. • The Aztecs were defeated mainly because a smallpox epidemic had broke out and killed many of them. The Aztecs surrender to Cortex, The British Library Based on what you know about the Aztecs, why would other tribes help Cortez? The caption means “Now the Mexica (Aztecs) were finished.”
The Conquest of Peru • 1530 Francisco Pizarro left Panama to conquer the Incas. • The Incas just had a civil war. • The Spanish pretended to be friendly and ambushed and killed the emperor. Spain won because of their superior technology. • In 1533 Pizarro captured the Inca capital. • The Spanish forced the Inca to become Christian and were used as a labor force. What advantages in technology did the Spanish have over the American natives? Conquistador fighting the Incas
Colonial Latin America • Latin America= blend of European and Native American culture • Government: Viceroys (governor) ruled each Spanish province. • Spanish born citizens filled most positions in the government and military. • Gold and silver from the Americas was shipped back to Spain. This made Spain the strongest European power. What problems in governing such a large territory might the Spanish have faced? ushistory.com
Colonial Society • Conquistadors: (Spanish Nobles) owned the land • Native Americans: worked the land • Priests: tried to convert the Indians to Christianity and keep them from becoming slaves
Colonial Society • After a while this social order developed: • Noble officials and landowners born in Spain (peninsulares): head of colonial society • Spanish people born in the New World (creoles) • Mixed Spanish and Native American people (mestizos) • Native Americans (did most of the hard work) What observations do you have about this social structure?
New France • Canada and along Great Lakes down the Mississippi River • French missionaries tried to convert the Indians • By end of 17th century the territory covered 3/4th of North America • Sent animal skins and pelts back to France to make hats How might the population of New France create problems for the ruling government?
New Netherlands • Around present-day New York • Traded with native peoples • Colony was controlled by Dutch West India Company • New Amsterdam (New York City) had a good harbor and became the center for trade. The coastline claimed by New Netherland and some settlements shown relative to modern borders. wikipedia
The English Colonies • 1607: English established Jamestown in Virginia • 1620: Pilgrims establish colony in Massachusetts • 1630: The Puritans settle near the Pilgrims • Eventually 13 colonies arose along the Atlantic coast
The Atlantic Slave Trade • Disease killed many Native Americans • A new labor force was needed in the New World • In Africa conquering tribes sold their captives to the Europeans Based on the map, which European power acquired the most African slaves?
The Atlantic Slave Trade • 15 million Africans were enslaved • 11 million went to Spanish colonies • Many died coming across the Atlantic in what has become known as the “Middle Passage.”
Encouraged African Warfare: captured slaves were traded for guns, rum, and other manufactured goods Disrupted African Culture: destroyed Africa’s culture and heritage and led to violence, bitterness, and social upheaval Increased Cultural Diffusion: ideas, good, and cultures were exchanged in Africa and the Americas How has African culture effected American society and culture? Legacy of the Transatlantic Slave Trade on Africa