Ketan Chitnis, PhDCommunication for Development SpecialistUNICEF Viet Nam Risk communication theories on engaging communities Disclaimer: The presentation represents the personal view of the author and does not necessarily represent the position of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
Resilience, social capital, social networks, interpersonal trust Communities…DRM • Community - autonomous - preferences, resources, capabilities. Active.
Great East Japan Earthquake – role of communities Most people rescued by relatives and neighbours within the first 24 hours, before responders • Neighborhood associations (Jichikai) • Mobilize communities in disaster drills
Lessons… • Strong and effective community-based DRM requires grassroots support and linkages to the community. • Linking disaster risk awareness and preparedness activities to local cultural events effective in maintaining a culture of preparedness. • Building effective and sustainable capacity for community-based DRM requires the formal recognition and support of local and national authorities. • In addition to providing financial and technical assistance, local and national governments should develop legislation on and institutionalize the role of CBOs.
Perceived Risk • Assessment • Vulnerability Risk Perception & Vulnerability (Adaptive capability - Smith and Wandel, 2006)
Risk assessment – avian flu communication Expert driven messaging dominated communication High risk group segmentation not conducted adequately – backyard/producers/wet markets Cultural context, economic situation, emotional elements were overlooked
Why engage with communities • Deepwater horizon disaster • Control of the spill, underwater infrastructure and long-term eco-system damage • Later unanticipated social and economic disruption to communities inland and on the shoreline emerged • 2009 H1N1 pandemic • School closure not adhered to due to economic reasons, risk perception was low • Severity of illness over public good • Communication and outreach not tailored for different population types
Questions to ponder… • What can risk communication for disease outbreaks learn from community-based disaster risk management? • How risk communication can match the expert advice with local realities, cultural practices and socio-economic context? • How best can communication address risk perception, resilience and social cohesion in the context of disease outbreak?
References Biedrzycki, P.A and Koltun, R. (2012) Integration of Social Determinants of Community Preparedness and Resiliency in 21st Century Emergency Management Planning. Homeland Security Affairs, 8(14) Patterson, O.; Weil, F.; Patel, K. (2010) The Role of Community in Disaster Response: Conceptual Models. Population Research Policy Review, 29, pp. 127–141 Shaw. R; Ishiwatari. M; & Arnold. M. (n.d) Community-based Disaster Risk Management. Kyoto University and World Bank Chitnis, K. (2012). Risk Communication and Emerging Infectious Diseases: L:essons from Avian Influenza Control in. Obregon, R. & Waisbord, S.. The Handbook of Global Health Communication.