Nationalism & Imperialism in Southeast Asia,China and Japan, 1815-1915
Opium War (1839-1842) • Cause:.
Opium Wars • Roots in 1759 Emperor Qianlong restricted European commercial presence to the port of Guangzhou. • Trade supervised under the cohong system. With specially licensed Chinese firms operating under government set prices.
Opium Wars • Europeans had little the Chinese wanted to buy, but the Europeans wanted Chinese goods. • British East India company started importing Opium into China. • Addiction and Trade increased! • Chinese government attempted a trade ban. British protested.
Opium Wars • Treaty of • Results: The British won and acquired Hong Kong as a colony as well as a number of other privileges in China. • Silver began flowing out of China. • Missionaries-. • Extraterritoriality:. • Korea, Vietnam and Burma were released from Chinese control
Unequal Treaties • The British privileges in China were very soon acquired by other countries in more “unequal” treaties, and resulted in the subjugation and humiliation of China for the next 100 years. • Eventually led to “spheres of influence” China was divided up into trading spheres, giving each European nation exclusive trading rights to part of China.
Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) & the Boxer Rebellion (1900) • These were among the most violent efforts on the part of Chinese “secret societies” which tried to drive out the Westerners and overthrow the Manchus. • Both rebellions were put down by Western troops.
Taiping Rebellion • The Taiping Rebellion resulted from many factors - • The decline of the Qing dynasty • The enormous population pressures that China faced in the mid-nineteenth century • The introduction of Western ideologies and religions into Chinese society.
Taiping Rebellion • Hong Xiuquan –
Boxer Rebellion 1899-1900 • There was a Chinese nationalist uprising in 1899-1900 against foreigners, the representatives of alien powers, and Chinese Christians. Expulsion of all foreigners from China was the ultimate objective of the uprising. The name Boxers (Yi He Quan) refers to “-
Boxers • In 1899 the Boxers, a secret society of Chinese, began a campaign of terror against Christian missionaries in the northeastern provinces. Although the Boxers were officially denounced, they were secretly supported by many of the royal court, including the dowager empress Cixi (Tz'u Hsi).
Boxer Rebellion • On June 21, 1900, after the Empress declared war on all foreign powers, the Boxers began a two-month assault on the legations in Beijing. • An international force of Japanese, Russian, German, American, British, Italian and Austro-Hungarian troops put down the uprising by August 14. • Spelled the end of the Qing Dynasty.
Empress Dowager Tzu Hsi • Conservative, • Reactionary • Ruler of China for 50 yrs
The “The Last Emperor”Pu Yi (1908-1911) • Was replaced by a Republic in 1911 under the leadership of Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen • Founded the Republic of China based on the “Three Principles of the People” • Nationalism • Liberalism & • Peoples’ Livelihood
Meiji Restoration, 1867 • Meiji means “-” • Tozama Daimyo, Industrial Leaders & Wealthy Farmers cooperatively overthrew the Tokugawa Shogunate and established a new government for Japan which was based on “Modernization & Westernization.”
Matthew Perry“Gunboat Diplomacy” • In 1853, the U.S. sent a fleet of ships under the command of - to Japan in order to end the nation’s self-imposed isolation and open it to trade. Soon, the Britain, Russia, and Holland negotiated similar treaties.
Meiji Restoration • In 1868, Emperor Mutsushito was restored to the throne. He decided that in order to withstand the imperialistic might of the West, Japan would need to adopt western ways. This movement would be known as the-
Meiji Restoration • The Meiji took advantage of the fact that Japan was less geographically strategic than the Chinese. • Left to their own devices, the Japanese created a remarkable state that built the foundations for Japan as a world power.
Sino-Japanese War(1894-1895) • Cause: Conflict over Korea • Results: Japan won and increased its influence in Korea. • Japan also took Taiwan.
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) • Cause: Conflict over Korea & Manchuria • Results: Japan won and increased its influence in these areas. • Japan’s global respect & prestige also increased.
Annexation of Korea • As a result of repeated protests & demonstrations on the part of Koreans against Japan, Japan forced Korea into colonial status, and took total control of its government and society from 1910-1945.
East India’s - controlled by _______________ • Philippines- controlled by ________________
1898 the Spanish American War • Filipino Aid • USA Won • ruled as a colony