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Acids & Bases. They are everywhere.. In your food In your house EVEN IN YOU!!!!!. What is an acid?. An acid is a solution that has an excess of H+ ions. It comes from the Latin word acidus that means "sharp" or "sour". The more H + ions, the more acidic the solution. Properties of an Acid.

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Acids & Bases

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acids bases

Acids & Bases

They are everywhere..

In your food

In your house


what is an acid
What is an acid?
  • An acid is a solution that has an excess of H+ ions. It comes from the Latin word acidus that means "sharp" or "sour".
  • The more H + ions, the more acidic the solution.
properties of an acid
Properties of an Acid
  • Tastes Sour
  • Conduct Electricity
  • Corrosive, which means they break down certain substances. Many acids can corrode fabric, skin,and paper
  • Some acids react strongly with metals
  • Turns blue litmus paper red
uses of acids
Uses of Acids
  • Acetic Acid = Vinegar
  • Citric Acid = lemons, limes, & oranges. It is in many sour candies such as lemonhead & sour patch.
  • Ascorbic acid = Vitamin C which your body needs to function.
  • Sulfuric acid is used in the production of fertilizers, steel, paints, and plastics.
  • Car batteries
what is a base
What is a base?
  • A base is a solution that has an excess of OH- ions.
  • Another word for base is alkali.
  • Bases are substances that can accept hydrogen ions
properties of a base
Properties of a Base
  • Feel Slippery
  • Taste Bitter
  • Corrosive
  • Can conduct electricity. (Think alkaline batteries.)
  • Do not react with metals.
  • Turns red litmus paper blue.
uses of bases
Uses of Bases
  • Bases give soaps, ammonia, and many other cleaning products some of their useful properties.
  • The OH- ions interact strongly with certain substances, such as dirt and grease.
  • Chalk and oven cleaner are examples of familiar products that contain bases.
  • Your blood is a basic solution.

Let’s examine the behavior of an acid, HA, in aqueous solution.


What happens to the HA molecules in solution?


100% dissociation of HA



Strong Acid


Would the solution be conductive?


Partial dissociation of HA



Weak Acid


Would the solution be conductive?


HA  H+ + A-



Weak Acid


At any one time, only a fraction of the molecules are dissociated.

strong and weak acids bases
Strong and Weak Acids/Bases

Strong acids/bases – 100% dissociation into ions




Weak acids/bases – partial dissociation, both ions and molecules


ph scale
pH Scale
  • pHis a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is.
  • The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.
  • Acidic solutions have pH values below 7
  • A solution with a pH of 0 is very acidic.
  • A solution with a pH of 7 is neutral.
  • Pure water has a pH of 7.
  • Basic solutions have pH values above 7.

pH Scale

  • A change of 1 pH unit represents a tenfold change in the acidity of the solution.
  • For example, if one solution has a pH of 1 and a second solution has a pH of 2, the first solution is not twice as acidic as the second—it is ten times more acidic.
acid base reactions
Acid – Base Reactions
  • A reaction between an acid and a base is called neutralization. An acid-base mixture is not as acidic or basic as the individual starting solutions.
acid base reactions1
Acid – Base reactions
  • Each salt listed in this table can be formed by the reaction between an acid and a base.

Bronsted-Lowry Model

acid: anything that donates a [H+] (proton donor)

base: anything that accepts a [H+] (proton acceptor)

acid + base <=> acid + base

HNO2 + H2O <=> NO2- + H3O+

Each acid has a conjugate base and each base has a conjugate acid. These conjugate pairs only differ by a proton. In this example: HNO2 is the acid, H2O is the base, NO2- is the conj. base, and H3O+ is the conj. acid.

The Trick- Pick a compound on the left side of the equation.

Find the similar compound on the other side of the reaction. The species with 1 more Hydrogen is the acid, the one with less is the base.

HNO2 <=> NO2- or H2O <=> H3O+

So HNO2 is the acid. So H3O+ is the acid.


Past Regents Questions

According to one acid-base theory, water acts as an acid when an H2O molecule

(1) accepts an H+ (3) accepts an H-

(2) donates an H+ (4) donates an H-

An acid can be defined as an

(1) H+ acceptor (3) OH- acceptor

(2) H+ donor (4) OH- donor



Water is Amphiprotic

H2O(l) + H2O(l) <==> H3O+(aq) + OH¯(aq)