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Engenharia de Software prefácio. joa & srlm. Free Software Engineering: A Field to Explore. Gonzáles-Barahona and Robles UPGRADE Vol. IV No. 4 August 2003. Free Software Projects. Nascem como iniciativa isolada e particular Usuários são co-desenvolvedores Divulgação “boca-a-boca”

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free software engineering a field to explore

Free Software Engineering: A Field to Explore

Gonzáles-Barahona and Robles

UPGRADE Vol. IV No. 4 August 2003

free software projects
Free Software Projects
  • Nascem como iniciativa isolada e particular
  • Usuários são co-desenvolvedores
  • Divulgação “boca-a-boca”
  • Teste massificado pelos usuários
  • Gerência de versões é complexa e “bem-definida”
open source projects
Open Source Projects
  • (Sun apr 16 00:10:21 BRT 2006)  133,421 projects!
  • Communications(13469)
  • Database(5388)
  • Desktop Environment(2822)
  • Education(3252)
  • Formats and Protocols(1292)
  • Games/Entertainment(12694)
  • Internet(21951)
  • Multimedia(11518)
  • Office/Business(6136)
  • Other/Nonlisted Topic(2065)
  • Printing(417)
  • Religion and Philosophy(274)
  • Scientific/Engineering(9942)
  • Security(2494)
  • Sociology(355)
  • Software Development(18587)
  • System(17790)
  • Text Editors(2436)
causas de descontinuidade de projetos sw livre
Causas de Descontinuidade de Projetos SW Livre
  • Falta de interesse, tempo ou motivação
    • mudança de liderança nos projetos impactam sua continuidade
  • Code Forking
    • cada usuário tem acesso ao código e pode alterá-lo e redistribuí-lo sem o conhecimento do líder do projeto
free software engineering resume
Free Software EngineeringResume
  • “A Field to Explore”
  • “is still in its infancy” (2003!)
  • “How to create free software? Issues:
    • Classification of free software projects
    • Creation of a methodology
    • Methods + classification + models ++ Simulation (intelligent agents) = Free SW Engineering”
process implementation


We’ve documented all our processes—what’s left to do?

Process Implementation

Sarah Sheard

Software Productivity Consortium

Thursday, July 3, 2003

so what does it take
So what does it take?

1. Manage as a project

2. Obtain management support

3. Establish policy

4. Establish measurement baseline

5. Train employees and managers

6. Tailor processes

7. Maintain process assets

8. Ensure processes are being used

9. Learn Lessons

10. Improve Processes

11. Appraise the organization

process implementation requires everyone
Process Implementation Requires Everyone!
  • Senior management sets the tone and ensures other managers make PI happen
  • SEPG drives the process improvement program to its goals
  • Projects review processes, tailor standard processes, use their tailored versions, and recommend improvements
  • QA audits independently
funciona para sw livre
Funciona para SW Livre?
  • Adaptação de Processos de 1990?
  • 2006! Distributed Development...
  • O que fazer?
    • Ler
    • Praticar
    • Montar experimentos

reais e avaliar...

a framework for creating hybrid open source software communities

A Framework for creating hybrid-open source software communities

Srinarayan Sharma

et. al.

Info Systems

(2002), 12.

  • OSS model is a fundamentally new and revolutionary way to develop software
  • organizations are having difficulty building a business model around the open source paradigm
  • not all OSS initiatives have been successful
  • Framework for creating Hybrid-OSS communities
the oss model
The OSS model
  • Three dimensions:
    • structure, process and culture

Division of labour

Co-ordination mechanisms

Distribution od decision-making

Organizational boundaries

Informal structure

Political structure

Legitimate basis of authority

Eletronic communication

Multicultural community

Values: reciprocity, gift giving, reputation, ideology

Core assumptions




oss development process
OSS development process
  • Problem discovery
  • Finding volunteers
  • Solution identification
  • Code development and testing
  • Code change review
  • Code commit and documentation
  • Release management
framework for creating hybrid oss communities
Framework for creating Hybrid-OSS communities


  • Community building
  • Community governance
    • Shared governance
    • Membership management
    • Incentives and rewards
  • Community infrastructure

...  open source communities versus Software Factories?

  • personal time and autonomy

...  freelancers

...  project-oriented

  • ... there are several avenues for future research
    • ... to refine the proposed framework and validate it empirically
joa@ufrpe br silvio@cesar org br

Porto DigitalUFPE/UFRPE – CESARIN953 - desenvolvimento distribuído de software em indústria, comunidades acadêmicas e científicasuma fábrica de software livre...



linhas mestras in953 engenharia de software
linhas-mestrasIN953 – Engenharia de Software
  • Process Implementation – Software Factories(Gibeon, Ana Paula, Thayssa)
  • F/L/OSS(Alan)
  • OSS Business Model(Alan, Ana Paula, Aisa)
  • Scientific Relevant Projects(Convidados)
  • Business & Humanitas(TODOS!)
f brica de sw na pr tica
fábrica de sw na prática
  • Operação profissional
  • Processo de desenvolvimento transparente
  • Retorno rápido ao cliente
  • Alta produtividade
      • Ferramentas e processos padronizados
  • Alta qualidade
      • Dados históricos, previsibilidade e análise de risco
  • Reusabilidade de código

[1968 G&E, R. W. Berner]

[2003 IEEE Computer Vol.36 Num.3, B. Boehm]

[2005 IEEE Software Vol. 22 Num 2, PostModern SW Design]

cathedral and bazaar
Cathedral and Bazaar

e Desenvolvimento de Software

segundo Eric Raymond, 1997

  • Alguns projetos são como Cathedrals
    • altamente centralizados em poucas pessoas que decidem projeto e implementação
    • para fazer parte deve-se aceitar as definições
  • http://catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral-bazaar/
outros s o como bazaars sw livre
Outros são como Bazaars (sw livre)
  • Sem planejamento detalhado mas


  • Linux Kernel (www.linux.org):


    • Linus Torvalds, “The Benevolent Dictator”
  • APACHE Foundation (www.apache.org): “meritocracy”
    • Para fazer parte você deve ter colaborado continuamente em projetos da fundação
  • GCC (gcc.gnu.org): “steering Commitee”

The factory is an organization inhabited by people engaged in a common effort, work is organized one way or the other, standardization is used for coordination and formalization, and systematization is important, but there will be several options for the design of a particular software factory

[Aaen, Botcher, Mathiassen, Software Factories, 1997]


considera es

The four approaches are important contributions towards this goal. At the same time the approaches individually may lead to unfortunate illusions. Learning from the relative strengths and weaknesses between the approaches may help us avoid becoming victims of these illusions

[Aaen, Botcher, Mathiassen, Software Factories, 1997]


e ilus es
...e ilusões...

fábrica de software≠produção em massa

padronização, formalização, especialização, controle ≠ produção de software com qualidade

o que fazer?


building a software factory...[Making the software factory work... 1990-1999]http://www.cin.ufpe.br/~in953/papers/MakingTheSoftwareFactoryWorkLessonsFromADecadeOfFactory.pdf

  • to define a detailed software development process
  • staff members were given extensive training in the new process
  • process specification separated from process execution
  • data collection and analysis
    • interviews
    • software process assesments
    • process attributes for each project
    • configuration management system
    • project tracking data

processo é complexo... Ex.: Ampla






e as pessoas
e as pessoas?...


o que sabemos aqui
o que “sabemos” aqui?
  • TODO o pressman ou sommerville (Software Engineering)
  • ou seja:
    • requisitos, especificações, refinamento, validação e verificação, métodos, técnicas, linguagens e ferramentas, componentes, reutilização, manutenção, modelagem de processos, qualidade, reengenharia,, verificação, validação e teste... além de programação JAVA++!...
    • {faltaria o quê?}
o que fazer
o que fazer...
  • montar uma fábrica de software livre?
  • como? em 4 meses?
  • funciona?

para casa
para casa...

Leitura de referências desta aula 10 + 8 papers


Navegação Fábricas Passadas


1ª NOTA 24.abr.06

summer of code 2006 receba us 4500 00 para contribuir com softwares livres
Summer of Code 2006: receba US$ 4500,00 para contribuir com softwares livres
  • http://code.google.com/soc/Summer of Code
  • Welcome to the Summer of Code 2006 site. As organizations begin to sign up for Summer of Code, you will see a list of organizations and links to their ideas for student projects. We are not taking student applications just yet, see the FAQ for more details. You can talk to us in either on Summer-Discuss-2006 or on IRC in #summer-discuss on SlashNET.