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Program lots of functions into it. Sell it for Megabucks. Lose it all in the Market. How to Succeed in Life – The micro way. Take a microprocessor/ microcontroller chip. Build an small but cool system. Add support chips. General Purpose Computers.

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how to succeed in life the micro way

Program lots offunctions into it

Sell it for Megabucks

Lose it all in theMarket

How to Succeed in Life – The micro way

Take a microprocessor/microcontroller chip

Build an small but cool system

Add supportchips

general purpose computers
General Purpose Computers
  • Microcomputers are computers based on microprocessors
    • General purpose microcomputers
      • PC’s, Macs, Tablets etc.
    • Generally require a large amount ofsupport circuitry
      • Memory, communications, I/O, keyboard,display...
inside a general purpose computer

Address Bus

Data Bus

Control Bus

Serial

Interface

Disk

Controller

Video

Memory

Parallel

Interface

Real-time

Clock

Keyboard/MouseController

...

Disk

Interface

Video

Display

Controller

Inside a General Purpose Computer

PCIBusBridge

PCI ExpBusBridge

Clock,Resetcircuitry

ROM

CPU

RAM

PCI Bus

does one size fit all
Does One Size Fit All?
  • Advantages of a general-purpose computer
    • Flexible - can run lots of programs and interface with lots of devices
  • Expandable - can be updated with new hardware
  • Cost-effective - the cost of adding a new program is small
  • Economy of scale - millions are being produced…
  • Disadvantages
    • Must be a “super” system, capable of running any program
  • High price
  • Relatively large, short battery life
microcontroller systems
Microcontroller Systems
  • Microcontroller Systems are small, special-purpose computer systems
      • Toaster control systems
      • Handheld electronics
      • Toys
      • Test equipment
  • Only the necessary parts are included
    • Cheaper, smaller
  • Simpler --> more reliable?
needs of typical microcontroller systems
Needs of Typical Microcontroller Systems
  • Consider the following embedded systems:
    • Intelligent thermostat
    • Blood Glucose Meter
    • RC helicopter
    • Automobile System Controller
  • Single-purpose
  • Small
  • Inexpensive
  • Reduced computation needs
  • Special interfaces
  • Lightweight (often hand held)
building small using microprocessors
Building small using Microprocessors?
  • What does it take to build a blood glucose meter using a typical microprocessor?
  • 1 CPU
  • Dynamic RAM, controller (about 20 chips)
  • ROM (one or two chips) for program
  • Real-time clock
  • LCD panel
  • Serial interface ports, drivers
  • A/D Converter
  • Random support chips (five or six chips)
  • This is going to take around 40 chips, use 50 W, and cost $500.
building small using microcontrollers
Building small using Microcontrollers
  • A Microcontroller is a small CPU with many support devices built into the chip
  • Small CPU (8- or 16-bit, 4-32 MHz)
  • ROM (8-64 KB)
  • RAM (About 256 bytes), EEPROM (About 512 Bytes)
  • Parallel ports
  • Serial ports
  • A/D Converter
  • Timer
  • Typically, a microcontroller uses little power and costs $0.50 to $5.00.
a generic microcontroller
A Generic Microcontroller

FlashEEROM2KB – 256KB

RAM256B – 16KB

Timer16-32 Bit

Small CPU Core8-16 Bits

2-32 MHz2-16 Registers

ADC8-14 Bits

RS232/USB

GPIO

I2C/SPI

Memory Bus16-24 Bits