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ABSTRACT Maria LAW Vice-President for Asia Australasia, ISRRT. Consultant (MI & RT), Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, Professor (Hon.), Tung Wah College, Hong Kong.

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  1. ABSTRACT Maria LAW Vice-President for Asia Australasia, ISRRT. Consultant (MI & RT), Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, Professor (Hon.), Tung Wah College, Hong Kong. Among all activities of the ISRRT, education and training are highly regarded by the Board. With it’s limited resources, What can be done? In recent years the ISRRT focussed more on providing workshops for developing countries. However at the same time, some countries are calling for accreditation of education programme by ISRRT. With such background, the ISRRT is charged with the mission of looking into the matter. While a lot of researching has been dome on the way that standardization of training is done among different professions, a preliminary survey was also conducted among the Asian-Australasian (A/A) countries in January 2013 to seek opinions and needs from this part of the world. In the survey, most A/A countries expressed such as a need and the results of the survey would be discussed. As countries vary much in the practice of radiological technology, the setting of one standard is not without difficulties. While standardization of training would remain voluntary, it was felt that a mechanism must be provided for programs to be benchmarked against or invalidated at an internationally recognized standard. At the same time it should be cross referenced against the scope of practice in individual countries as well as the country-specific competency profiles of the profession. Further discussion resulted in three ways to approach this issue: 1. the provision of a universal guideline, 2. documentation approval of training programme, and 3. accreditation of the training programme. The role and the possible method of each approach would be discussed. Sun 1st Sep 2013 Session 1 / Talk 3 09:55 –10:15 HEAPHY 1 & 2 DIAGNOSTIC Maria LAW

  2. Role of ISRRT in the Global Accreditation of Radiography Education Maria Law (Ph.D.) Vice President (A/A), ISRRT Consultant, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital President, Hong Kong College of Radiographers and Radiation Therapists NZIMRT Conference 2013 29 Aug – 1 Sep, 2013, Hamilton, New Zealand

  3. Greetings from Board of ISRRT 2010 - 2014

  4. Content • Introduction to ISRRT and its activities • Accreditation of radiography education globally? • Results of survey in early 2013 • Preliminary recommendations • Discussion • Conclusion

  5. 1. Introduction to ISRRT and its activities

  6. ISRRT Our Mission: • To improve the delivery of healthcare…to people around the world…promoting: • quality patient care, • education and • research... in medical imaging and radiation therapy

  7. ISRRT Activities • Newsletter • News and Views from around the World • Professional activities • World Congress • Radiography Day • Collaboration with e.g. WHO, IAEA, ICR, RSNA etc • Radiation Protection • Code of ethics • Education & research ISRRT World Congress 2012, Toronto, Canada

  8. 2. Accreditation of radiography education globally?

  9. A global standard for Radiography education?

  10. A global standard for Radiography education? Within a country e.g. USA • What is everybody having for entry requirements? • On-the-job training • Certificate entry • Dipoma entry • Bacalaureate degree

  11. A global standard for Radiography education? • What are the different grades of practitioners? • Technologists • Technicians • X-ray assistants • What do we require from each grade? India

  12. A global standard for Radiography education? Diversity of culture in the world Which culture to base on?

  13. Accreditation of radiography education globally Does ISRRT play a role? What role?

  14. 3. Results of survey in early 2013

  15. Survey Researching • Director of Education looked into different radiography programs worldwide • Also cross-referenced with similar professions e.g. World Federation of Occupational Therapists • Questionnaire set to seek the views of countries

  16. Questionnaire • Sought opinions from different countries through the respective Education Co-ordinators of the different regions • One questionnaire done at the AACRT in Chiangmai, Thailand in January 2013.

  17. 21st Asian Australasian Conference of Radiological Technologists 16-18 January 2013 Chiangmai, Thailand Sri Lanka Bangladesh Korea China Hong Kong Philippines Taiwan Korea Japan Japan Malaysia Thailand UK Hong Kong USA Taiwan Thailand Vietnam Singapore Mongolia Myanmar India Macau Australia Nepal Bhutan

  18. The Questionnaire • Should this be a single global profile or reflective of each country’s needs? R: Global 3 Country Specific 15 2. If the latter, does your country have such a document? R: No 7 Yes 8 Not understood 2 3. The document should be developed by the professional body. If you do not have such a document would you be willing to create one? R: Yes 14 No 1 N/A 2

  19. The Questionnaire (cont’d) 4. Accreditation or Approval can be Compulsory or Voluntary, which would you prefer? R: Voluntary Accred. 6 Compulsory Accred. 10 5. Site visits are expensive and could not be financially managed by the ISRRT. If we had a system in place would your institution or your government be willing to finance the site visit component? R: No 7 yes 11

  20. The Questionnaire (cont’d) • We are currently looking at models of radiography accreditation used in UK, USA, Canada, Australia, proposed model for Europe (EFRS), the current ISRRT Guidelines and the World Federation of Occupational Therapists which has an existing international model, do you have any others you could recommend? R: Yes 1 No 11 Not sure 2

  21. 4. Preliminary recommendations

  22. A Committee meeting was held on 9 April 2013 to draft recommendations to the ISRRT Board for discussion

  23. The Radiography Education Standards Project Australia Thailand Hong Kong Greece

  24. The document The Document developed can be used … • As a BenchmarkingTool • As an ApprovalDocument • As an Accreditation document when used with Site visit tool and Visit itself (funded by requester) 24

  25. Preliminary Recommendations (1) • The Accreditation or approval mechanism – 2. A method to determine quality or relevance but NOT to confirm reciprocitybetween countries. Voluntary

  26. Preliminary Recommendations (2) 3. Responsibility of the program to produce the appropriate materials 4. Contain a comprehensive glossary of terms 5. The document should be out-come based. Result-oriented

  27. Preliminary Recommendations (3) 6. Focuses only on baccalaureate degree programs 7. Should be cross referenced against the ISRRT Role or Scope of Practice document and also country specific competency profiles

  28. Preliminary Recommendations (4) 8. Expert advice to improve credibility to the document 9. A draft document should be sent out to all ISRRT members for their feedback

  29. Preliminary Recommendations (5) 10. Implementation procedures and budgetting 11. Any accreditation system or approval system through ISRRT can only include a site visit if the institution pays

  30. Main requirements in document • The Profession • The Education • The Student • The Resources • Work Integrated Learning (Clinical) • Management • Quality Assurance

  31. 5. Discussion

  32. Discussion • Scope of current project: • Baccalaureate degree, what if countries do not offer degree programmes? • Diagnostic radiography only, how can we benchmark those programmes that graduate radiographers in all disciplines (prevalent in Asia) • Scope of practice: • Do we want a global standard or a standard based on the scope of practice of an individual country?

  33. 5. Conclusion

  34. Conclusion • Is global accreditation of education programme the role of ISRRT? • Many countries have been craving for such a standard document, both developed and developing countries • If ISRRT does not take up this role, who else would do it?

  35. 12-15 June 2014

  36. Congratulations to the Korea for being selected to host the ISRRT World Congress in 2016!!

  37. Thank you

  38. References • WHO 2011. Transformative Scale- up of Health professional education. Geneva: WHO. • WORLD FEDERATION OF MEDICAL EDUCATION. Quality Improvement in Basic Medical Education. 2001 Denmark: University of Copenhagen. WFME. • WHO 1993. Increasing the relevance of education for health professionals: Report of a WHO study group on problem-solving education for the health professions. Geneva: WHO. • AIR. 2012. Accreditation of professional entry programs in Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy [Online]. Available: http://www.air.asn.au/cms_files/05_Accreditation/Accreditation_ProEntry_Guidelines_new.pdf [Accessed 15/12/12. • AQF. 2011. Australian Qualifications Framework [Online]. Available: http://www.aqf.edu.au/. • ASRT. 2012. The Radiologist Assistant [Online]. Available: http://www.asrt.org/main/careers/radiologist-assistant [Accessed 15/12/12. • BAIRD, M. A. 2008. Towards the development of a reflective practitioner: challenges and constraints. Biomedical Imaging and InterventionJournal, 4, e9. • CONJOINT ACCREDITATION SERVICES 2007. Requirements for accreditation. In: ASSOCIATION, C. M. (ed.). Ottawa, Canada: CMA. • COWLING C 2008. A global overview of the changing roles of radiographers. Radiography, 14, e28-e32. • EATON, J. S. 2010. Accreditation and the Federal Future of Higher Education. Academe, 96, 21-25. • EATON, J. S. 2012. The Future of Accreditation. Planning for Higher Education, 40, 8-15. • EDUCATION OF HEALTH PROFESSIONALS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY; A GLOBAL INDEPENDENT COMMISSION 2010. Health professionals for a new century: transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world. The Lancet, 376, 1923-1958. • EFRS. 2012. European Qualification Framework (6) Benchmark [Online]. European Federation of Radiographic Societies. Available: http://www.efrs.eu/news/efrs/news-detail-efrs/?newsId=b3eb90cc-c4ba-4784-9374-b96537eaf2d0 • EUROPEAN COMMISSION. 2008. The European Qualifications Framework [Online]. Available: http://ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learning-policy/eqf_en.htm.

  39. References • FREEMAN CHRISTINA 2012. Scope of Practice Survey 2012 (members only). Society and College of Radiographers. • HCPC. 2012. Approval and Monitoring processes [Online]. Health and Care Professions Council. Available: http://www.hpc-uk.org/education/processes/. • IAEA. 1996. International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for Safety of Radiation Sources [Online]. International Atomic Energy Agency. Available: www-pub.iaea.org/mtcd/publications/pdf/ss.../pub996_web-1a.pdf. • INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION. 2012. International Standard Clarification of Occupations [Online]. Geneva: ILO. Available: http://www.ilo.org/global/standards/lang--en/index.htm [Accessed 10/12/12. • JRCERT. 2012. Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology. Accreditation process [Online]. JRCERT. Available: http://www.jrcert.org/accreditation-process/. • KARLE, H. 2006. Global standards and accreditation in medical education: a view from the WFME. Acad. Med., 81, S 43-48. • OTTENBACHER, K. 1990. Occupational Therapy curricula and practice. Skill based or knowledge based. Occupational therapy Journal Res, 10, 7-11. • PATIL , A. & CODNER, G. 2007. Accreditation of engineering education: review,observsations and proposal for global accreditation. European Journal of Engineering Education, 32, 639-651. • ROONEY, A. L. & VAN OSTENBURG, P. R. 1999. Licensure, Accreditation and Certification: Approches to Health Services Quality. Quality Assurance Project.Bethseda USA. • SOCIETY &COLLEGE OF RADIOGRAPHERS. 2008. Approval and Accreditation Board. • UNESCO. World Declaration on Higher education for the Twenty First Century :Vision and Action. World Conference on Higher Education, 1998 Paris. • VAN DEN BURGHE, W. 1997. Application of ISO 9000 Standards in Education and Training. Interpretation and Guidelines in a European Perspective. European Journal Vocational Training, 15, 20-27. • WFOT 2002. Minimum Standards for the Education of Occupational Therapists. Australia: World Federation of Occupational Therapists. • 1999. Bologna Declaration. Joint Declaration of the European Ministers of Education. 1999.

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