THE GENERAL JONAS ZEMAITIS MILITARY ACADEMY OF LITHUANIA • CONTEMPORARY PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS • OF1 JURGIS NORVAISA
OF1 JURGIS NORVAISA • BACKGROUND • Lithuanian, born in 1986 – 27 years old • In army from 2005 • Military career: • Antitank PLT LDR • ISAF mission in AFG • COY CDR in MAL
“Well, who would defeat us if we are not afraid to die and we have conquered the death”
CONTENT • History of peacekeeping • Current peacekeeping operations • Quiz • Questions
REFERENCES • http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/history.shtml. • 2. The term ‘peacekeeping’ does not appear in the United Nations Charter and was first adopted following the deployment of a UN force to the Sinai in 1956 (UNEF) to secure a ceasefire between Egyptian and Israeli forces. • 3. Joint Warfare Publication 3-50 (JWP 3-50), 2nd Edition, June 2004, 1-4. • 4. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/early.shtml • 5. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/peacekeeping.shtml • 6. http://nobelpeacekeepers.tripod.com/id4.html • 7. http://unama.unmissions.org/Default.aspx?tabid=12255&language=en-US • 8. The UN Security Council, http://www.unfoundation.org/what-we-do/issues/united-nations/the-un-security-council.html, retrieved 15 May 2012.
PEACEKEEPINGPEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONSPEACE OPERATIONPEACE MAKINGPEACE BUILDINGPEACE ENFORCEMENTTRADITIONAL PEACEKEEPINGCOMPLEX PEACEKEEPINGMANY DEFINITIONS, COMMON IDEAS
Peace Support Operations (NATO Definition 2010) • An operation that impartially makes use of diplomatic, civil and military means, normally in pursuit of United Nations Charter purposes and principles, to restore or maintain peace. • Such operations may include conflict prevention, peacemaking, peace enforcement, peacekeeping, peacebuilding and/or humanitarian operations • NATO glossary of terms and definitions, AAP-6 2010
Peacekeeping (UN Definition ) • The deployment of international military and civilian personnel to a conflict area, with the consent of the parties to the conflict and/or national authorities in order to: • Stop or contain hostilities or • Supervise the carrying out of a peace agreement • Assist with humanitarian relief, human rights compliance and nation-building
UN Charter • Chapter VI • “Pacific settlement of disputes” • Security Council can investigate any dispute, or any situation which might lead to international friction or give rise to a dispute • Council can recommend action but the recommendations are not binding its members • Chapter VII • Council is not limited to recommendations • Can take action, including the use of armed force, to maintain or restore international peace and security • Peacekeeping ops often are called “Chapter VI and a half”
PK OPS • NOW THE MAIN TOOL TO OPERATE ARMED CONFLICT AND TO CONSTRUCT WORLD PEACE
“SITUATION IN THE MIDDLE”BETWEEN CONFLICTING • GROUPS PK OPS DURING THE COLD WAR
Who can implement • peacekeeping ops?
ANSWER 1: • The United Nations Charter gives the United Nations Security Council the power and responsibility to take collective action to maintain international peace and security • UN peacekeepers (Blue Berets) can include soldiers, police officers and civilians from member states.
ANSWER 2: • Most peacekeeping operations are established and implemented by UN itself, with troops under UN operational control • In cases where direct UN involvement is not considered appropriate or feasible, the Council may consider authorizing regional organizations (NATO, EU, ECOWAS) or other coalition of willing countries to undertake PK tasks
History of peacekeeping • United Nations Peacekeeping began in 1948 • The role of the 1st mission – to monitor the Armistice Agreement between Israel and its Arab neighbors. • Mission named – United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO).
History of peacekeeping • 68 peacekeeping operations have been deployed, 55 of them since 1988
History of peacekeeping • UN founding purpose – the maintenance of “international peace and security” by “effective collective measures” • Limitations throughout the Cold War mounting “Traditional” or “Nordic Peacekeeping” operations
History of peacekeeping • Trinity of peacekeeping principles: • Consent • Limited use of force • Impartiality • + • Day to day control of UNSG
History of peacekeeping • Peacekeeping was limited: • Maintain ceasefire and stabilize situation on the ground • Provide crucial support for political efforts to resolve conflict by peaceful means
History of peacekeeping • The first two peacekeeping operations deployed by the UN: • The truce supervision organization (UNTSO) • The UN military observer group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) • Observers unarmed, just observation and monitoring
History of peacekeeping • 1956 first armed peacekeeping operation – The first UN emergency force (UNEF1)
History of peacekeeping • The UN operation in the Congo (ONUC) • Launched in 1960 • First large-scale mission • 20000 military personnel • 250 UN personnel died, including the Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold
History of peacekeeping • In the 1960s and 1970s, the UN established short-term missions: • In the Dominican Republic (DOMREP) • West New Guinea (UNSF) • Yemen (UNYOM) • and started longer term deployments in Cyprus (UNFICYP) and the Middle East - (UNEFII), (UNDOF) and (UNIFIL).
History of peacekeeping • 1988, The Nobel Peace Prize
History of peacekeeping • By the 1990, it became abundantly clear that the Traditional concept of peacekeeping was inadequate
History of peacekeeping • Post-Cold War environment • CIA Director James Woolsey : • “We have slain a large dragon • (the U.S.S.R.), but we now live • in a jungle filled with a • bewildering variety of poisonous • snakes. In many ways, the • dragon was easier to keep track • of.”
History of peacekeeping • The Cold War structure had kept in check ethnic divisions in many countries and limited military interventions • After the Cold War , the UN went from an average of three or four peacekeeping ops a year to 13 in 1992
History of peacekeeping • What is peacekeeping? • One of the most effective tools from conflict to peace • Unique strength, including legitimacy, burden sharing and an ability to deploy and sustain troops and police • Peacekeepers provide security and the political and peace building support
History of peacekeeping • Todays operations • Are used to facilitate the political process, protect civilians, assist in the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of former combatants; support the organization of elections, protect and promote human rights and assist in restoring the rule of law
Today: • Supervise elections • Disarm opposing factions • Monitor human rights • Humanitarian assistance: • food, refugees, schools, medical help
Mission was established on 1 June 2004 (by security council resolution 1542) • Mission succeeded a Multinational Interim Force, after president Bertrand Aristide departed for exile
Earthquake of 12 January 2010 resulted in more than 220,000 deaths, including 96 UN peacekeepers • By resolution 1908 of January 2010 The Security Council increased the overall force levels
After Presidential elections in 2011 mission is working to fulfill its original mandate – restore secure and stable environment, to promote the political process, strengthen Government, rule of law. • Assistance in the effort to contain and treat cholera outbreak
Mission was established in 1991 29 of April (Security council resolution 690) • The settlement plan provided transitional period to referendum, choose between independence and integration with Morocco
Mission was established in 2003 19 of September (Security council resolution 1509) • Main goals: • Ceasefire agreement and the peace process • Protect UN staff, facilities and civilians • Support humanitarian and human rights activities • National security reform • vaizdiniai
Mission was established in 2004 4 of April (security council resolution 1528) • Mandate – to facilitate the implementation by the Ivorian parties • After 2010 Presidential election and political crisis UNOCI remained on the ground