Basic Indoctrination En route & Terminal Area Charting and Flight Planning
Key Elements 1) Terminology of charting services (European Aeronautical Group) • Plotting charts • Airway manuals • Airway En-route navigation charts - North America HI/LOW - Western Europe HI/LOW - North Atlantic 2) AIM and IFIM 3) Takeoff minimums, landing minimums, and alternate requirements 4) General company flight planning procedures • Track Selection • Flight Time Analysis • Fuel Requirements 5) Airport diagrams 6) Special Airport Authorizations, Provisions, and Limitations 7) Company and FAR fuel planning
En route & Terminal Area Charting and Flight Planning Terminology of charting services (European Aeronautical Group)
Airway Manuals • Navtech Manuals/Charts are designed using research from Human Factor specialists and by gathering data from, and working closely with a number of pilots with years of experience using aeronautical charts
Aerodrome Charts Each chart has: • Chart name and number on every page, including a frame text • Communication box with applicable frequencies on all chart types • Enhanced symbology • Improved presentation of altitudes, including presentations of take-off minima on aerodrome charts along with depictions of landing minima
Navtech Charts feature : • Aerodrome Charts • the Executive Manual • Flight Guide Service • Route Manual NOTAM • Communications • Meteorology • Navigation procedures • Legends • En Route and Area Charts • Flight Progress / Plotting / ETOPS-charts • Aerad Supplements • Abbreviations • Country Rules and Regulations • Operational Company information • Fuelling/gross weight charts • Emergency and security procedures
Aerodrome Charts The aerodrome charts contain • Aerodrome Briefing Card • Instrument Approach Charts • Landing Charts • Ground Charts and • Standard Arrival Routes separately.
En route/Terminal Area Charting/Flight Planning Navtech aero chart presentation 45min
En route and Terminal Area Charting and Flight Planning Airway En route Navigation Charts
Route Facility Charts/En route Navigation Charts • EAG - Navtech Charts are compiled from official documents and topographical reference charts. • The charts are designed primarily for instrument en route navigation with the information being kept to a minimum, consistent with the function of the charts. • The content varies with the geographical coverage in the charts.
Numbering The RFC/ENC:s are identified by a number, assigned as follows: Chart covering RFC/ENC number Europe 1 - 14 Africa 20 - 39 North / South Atlantic 40 - 49 North America / Caribbean 50 - 69 South America 70 - 79 Asia / Australia 80 - 94 The Pacific 95 - 96
En route Chart & Airway Symbols designations can be found in the Legends Section of the on-board NAVTECH Charts Operations Reference Manual
Airman’s Information Manual: AIM • This manual is designed to provide the aviation community with basic flight information and ATC procedures for use in the National Airspace System (NAS) of the United States. http://www.faa.gov/
International Flight Information Manual (IFIM) General Information Entering, Exiting, and flying in U.S. Airspace International Flying Overview AC 91-70A- Oceanic & Int’l Operations U.S. Prohibitions, Restrictions, and Notices Country Information List of Countries Publications Air Traffic Publications http://www.faa.gov/
En route and Terminal Area Charting and Flight Planning Takeoff minimums, landing minimums, and alternate requirements
TAKEOFF LIMITS AND MINIMA14 CFR 121.651(a), OpSpec C068 Op Spec C056 • 1/2 statute mile (800m) or RVR 2400 (750m). • RVR reports, when available for a particular runway, are controlling.
14 CFR Takeoff Minima LOWER THAN STANDARD TDZ RVR 1600 (500m) or 1/4 Statute Mile Visibility (400m) Use Mid RVR if TDZ RVR is inoperative. Operative High Intensity Runway Lights (HIRL), or Operative Runway Centerline Lights (CL), or Runway Centerline Markings (RCLM). NOTE When the required visual aids are not available, RVR 1600 (500m) or 1/4 statute mile (400m) may still be used provided runway markings or runway lighting provide pilots with adequate visual reference to continuously identify the takeoff surface and maintain directional control throughout the takeoff run.
14 CFR Takeoff Minima LOWER THAN STANDARD TDZ RVR 1000 (300m) and Rollout RVR 1000 (300m) Operative Runway Centerline Lights (CL), and TDZ and Rollout RVR’s normally required and control. A Mid RVR report may be substituted for either a TDZ RVR report if a TDZ RVR report is not available or a Rollout RVR report if a Rollout RVR report is not available. Far End RVR (if installed) may be substituted for inop Mid or Rollout.
14 CFR Takeoff Minima LOWER THAN STANDARD If Published – TDZ RVR 500 (150m), Mid RVR 500 (150m), and Rollout RVR 500 (150m). Operative Runway Centerline Lights (CL), and Runway Centerline Markings (RCLM), and HIRL, and For 3 RVR installed runways, if all three report, all control. One may be inoperative, in which case the other two control. For 4 RVR installed runways, if all four report, all control. One may be inoperative, in which case the other three control. Far End RVR (if installed) may be substituted for inop Mid or Rollout.
Baltia Lower Than Standard Takeoff Minima Procedures Company Standard Takeoff Minima is RVR 1600ft (550m)/VIS 1/4mile When the reported weather is below the Company Standard Takeoff Minima, the requirements of the Lower than Standard Minima will apply. (refer to Op specs C078). Operating procedures for takeoff with visibility less than RVR 1600ft (550m)/VIS 1/4 mile are: • The Captain must make the takeoff. • The Flight Crew must check the airplane compass heading against the desired runway heading after taxiing on to the runway. • A static takeoff must be performed.
Takeoff Alternate When weather conditions at the takeoff airport are below the landing minimums for the runways in use, a takeoff alternate airport must be listed on the dispatch release within the following distance: Departure alternates must not be more than two hours from the departure airport at normal cruising speed, in still air, with one engine inoperative. The distance for a takeoff alternate for the B747 should not be more than 320 nautical miles. Departure alternate airports and weather conditions must meet the requirements of Baltia Operations Specifications (C055) for alternate airports.
Alternate Airport Requirements • For flag operations, no person may dispatch an airplane under IFR or over-the-top unless he lists at least one alternate airport for each destination airport in the dispatch release, unless: (1/3) The flight is scheduled for LESS than 6 hours and for at least 1 hour before and 1 hour after the estimated time or arrival at the destination airport, the appropriate weather reports or forecasts or any combination of them, indicate the ceiling will be: • At least 1,500 feet above the lowest circling MDA, if a circling approach is required and authorized for that airport; or • At least 1,500 feet above the lowest published instrument approach minimum or 2,000 feet above the airport elevation, whichever is greater; and
Alternate Airport Requirements • For flag operations, no person may dispatch an airplane under IFR or over-the-top unless he lists at least one alternate airport for each destination airport in the dispatch release, unless: • (2/3) The visibility at that airport will be at least 3 miles, or 2 miles more than the lowest applicable visibility minimums, whichever is greater, for the instrument approach procedures to be used at the destination airport; or • (3/3) The flight is over a route approved without an available alternate airport for a particular destination airport and the airplane has enough fuel, considering wind and other weather conditions expected, to fly to that airport and thereafter to fly for at least two hours at normal cruising fuel consumption.
High-Minimums Captains • If the Captain of an airplane has not served 100 hours as Captain in operations under Part 121, in the type of airplane then the MDA or DH and visibility landing minimums are increased by 100 feet and one-half mile (or the RVR equivalent). • The 100 hours of pilot in command experience may be reduced (not exceed 50 percent) by substituting one landing in operations under this part in the type of airplane for 1 required hour of pilot in command experience, if the pilot has at least 100 hours as pilot in command of another type airplane in operations under this part. • There is no adjustment for alternate minimums and takeoff minimums. However, when determining if a takeoff alternate is required, the DH and visibility shall be increased by 100 feet and one-half mile (or the RVR equivalent) for low-time Captains but in no event may alternate landing minimums be less than 300 and 1.
En route and Terminal Area Charting and Flight Planning General company flight planning procedures• Track Selection• Flight Time Analysis• Fuel Requirements
NAVTECH FLIGHT PLANNING SYSTEM • Flight Plan Release Computation • Flight Planning Policy • Flight Route Selection
General Company Flight Planning Procedures Dispatchers will only use flight routes which comply with all weather, Class I and Class II navigation requirements, communication, airport, servicing, and route requirements as outlined in 14 CFR Part 121 subparts E and F and OpSpec B050. *For North Atlantic operations, Baltia dispatch must comply with Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) as defined in Operations Specifications B039.
Track Selection Separate Organized Track Structures (OTS) are published each day for eastbound and westbound flow to accommodate as many flights as possible within the traffic flow on or close to their minimum time tracks and profiles. • OTS use is not mandatory. Flights may be planned on random routes that remain clear of the OTS or may operate on any route that joins or leaves an outer track of the OTS. • Baltia dispatchers will plan for all RVSM altitudes, organized track altitudes, or other altitudes as assigned by ATC.