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Cardinal Surveys Company. Eliminate The Guesswork!. Bringing conformance within reach with proven technology. Cardinal Surveys Company. Choose your treatment success rate: 0 - 5% Based on assumptions. 5 - 90% Based on partial data.

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Cardinal Surveys Company

Eliminate The Guesswork!

Bringing conformance within reach with proven technology.

cardinal surveys company
Cardinal Surveys Company

Choose your treatment success rate:

0 - 5% Based on assumptions.

5 - 90% Based on partial data.

+90% Based on defined problems with solutions proven on previous applications.


We know, it has to be this!

It’s the only thing that could cause that…

The model shows…

Probable Result:

Damage productive zones.

partial data
Partial Data

Water Analysis - you know the zone, what’s the flow path?

Production History / Correlation - Flow path, parts is parts?

Bond Logs - Good until the first stimulation.

Injector Response - flow path, vertical fractures, offset wells...

Pump In Tracers without Production Logs - Path of least resistance, usually the good productive zone.



Call Wylie’s Psychic Logging Service

Don’t take the blame, we will!

Cheap Rates


Impress Your Boss

step rate test
Step Rate Test
  • Determine fracture point
  • Reservoir protection
  • Regulatory compliance
  • Can’t be estimated or based on assumptions
  • May be most vital of all diagnostics
step rate test7
Step Rate Test
  • Uniform Steps (Rates and Times)
  • Down-hole, real-time pressure measurement
  • Accurate flow rate measurment
  • Recording and filtering of data
  • Prepare well (shut in, water source)
define the problem locate production
Define The Problem(Locate Production)

TRAC-III to determine conformance problem.

A. Annulus Logging with 7/8” O.D. Tools.

B. Flowing Wells

C. “Y” Tool & Submersible Pump (7/8” Tools).

D. Memory PLT (Horizontal Applications).


Annulus TRAC-III Production Logging With 7/8” O.D. Tools

Tracer Velocities

Temperature Logs

Collar Locator

Gamma Ray




annulus logging candidates
Annulus Logging Candidates

4.5” Casing & 2.375” Tubing

5.5” Casing & 2.875” Tubing

Or any combination of larger casing and smaller tubing.

No liners or other restrictions in the annulus.

ROT: 100 BPD of produced fluids.

trac iii production logs
Trac III Production Logs
  • Dynamic, producing (e.g., actual or "real-time") conditions.
  • Temperature log.
  • Capacitance log.
  • Radioactive tracer log.
  • All logs can be run simultaneously during one trip in the well.
  • 5 1/2 inch casing and 2 7/8 inch tubing.
  • 4 1/2 inch casing and 2 3/8 inch tubing.
trac iii production logs15
Trac III Production Logs
  • Positive monitoring of reservoir performance .
  • Detailed, zone-by-zone, information.
  • Changes in the down-hole conditions detected.
  • Reevaluate marginal production wells.
  • Rework watered-out or gassed-out wells.
  • Recompletion of unproductive offset wells.
  • Essential guidance for remedial-workover designs.
  • Cost-effective well recompletions.
trac iii production logs16
Trac III Production Logs
  • Improved completion techniques for future wells.
  • Immediate verification of perforation efficiency .
  • Positive identification of the actual production intervals.
  • Confirmation of open hole log analysis and assumptions used in the initial completion.
  • Pinpoint mechanical problems.
trac iii production logs17
Trac III Production Logs
  • Document baseline production profile for future reference.
  • Optimize pump placement.
  • Discover unwanted water sources for remedial procedures.
  • Correlate production results with injection profiles for sweep efficiency of floods.
  • Confirm engineering and geological assumptions and analysis.
trac iii production logs18
Trac III Production Logs
  • Verify stimulation job effectiveness and techniques.
  • Plan accurate placement of mechanical isolation tools (bridge plugs and packers.)
  • Locate thief zones and undesirable cross-flows.
  • Real-time snap shot of production well.

7/8” O.D. Tool Lengths

Rope Socket (15" - 5/8" fishing neck)

Capacitance Tool (40")

Caliper (69")

Collar Locator (28.5")

Scintillation Gamma Ray Detector (60")

Microprocessor Controlled Ejector (75.5")

Temperature Tool (37")

Memory Pressure Gauge (14”)

Total Tool Length with crossovers = 30’


Annulus TRAC-III Preparation

  • Pull Tubing
  • Remove Anchor
  • Set Pump 100’ above Perfs
  • Dual Completion Flange
  • Small Pumping Tee
  • Slimline Stuffing Box
  • Remove Bridal Guard
  • Vertical Clearance Above Annulus Opening

Dual Completion Flange

Top View

Side View


Dual Head Configured


Pump Is Engaged


4.5” Casing & 2.375” Tubing

Note that there is not enough room to install a valve on the annulus opening.

These flanges are specifically designed for logging in 4.5” casing. A dual completion flange, if there is such, would not allow enough room in the annulus for tool entry.


TRAC-III Below Submersible Pump

Y-Tool Assembly

  • Well must have 7” casing to accommodate Y-tool.
  • Shut-in well & allow fluid to fall below pump
  • Fish out plug

Y-Tool Accessories For Logging

Running Plug

Baby Red

Prevents fluids from being circulated by pump.

Used to retrieve plug from Y-tool.


TRAC-III Below Submersible Pump

Y-Tool Assembly

  • Install running plug on wireline
  • Lower TRAC-III Tools & Running Plug to “Y”
  • Lower TRAC-III Tools below pump
  • Engage pump to seat running plug
  • Run logs when well is stable
memory plt
Memory PLT
  • Horizontal wells are the primary application in the Permian Basin.
  • No real time feedback allowing procedure modification to maximize information.
  • Most wellbore events in producers are not continuous. Your economics must reflect the possibility of multiple runs to accomplish some test objectives.
  • Most companies that have access to memory tools do not consider production logging a core business.
  • Great weapon, for the right battle!
production logging tidbits
Production Logging Tidbits

There are no silver bullets in the production logging industry.

production logging tidbits31
Production Logging Tidbits

Production logging for conformance objectives is an investigative process.

It requires the knowledge, experience, and authority to change the logging procedure as needed to define anomalies as they are encountered during the log.

production logging tidbits32
Production Logging Tidbits

Avoid the intentional design of tests that rely completely on nuclear based data acquisition. Their maximum radius of investigation is approximately 24 inches from the sensor.

production logging tidbits33
Production Logging Tidbits

In production logging, temperature logs are the center of your universe.

They are always correct, although sometimes hard to interpret by themselves.

Use data acquired from others sensors to help you interpret the temperature logs.

we want you on location
!We Want You On Location!
  • Production logging is an investigative process
  • Your knowledge of the lease can make the difference between a good survey and a great survey
correlation logs
Correlation Logs

Logs used to align logging depths to previously run open hole and cased hole logs.

Avoid the LAST LOG SYNDROME. It is generally acceptable for most production logs to be within 2 to 3 feet of measured depth. However, if you are on the 4th or 5th generation of logs, you may be correlating 10’ to 15’ off depth. Always try to use the original open hole logs or the logs used to perforate the well.

temperature logs
Temperature Logs

Producing temperature logs tend to reflect in wellbore and near wellbore events.

Shut-in temperature logs indicate events outside the wellbore.

You must know the status of the interior of the wellbore before you can interpret shut-in temperatures.

  • Fluid Identification
  • Calibrate between water and gas.
  • Capacitance VS. Density Tool
tracer velocities
Tracer Velocities

Modified Velocity Profile Measurement

Production fluctuations do not affect the calculations as severely as stationary velocity shots.

Same velocity method is used in flowing wells.

  • Measures internal diameter of wellbore.
  • Gives general picture of conditions.
  • Improves velocity calculations and profile.
example 1
Example #1
  • Rod pump well in S.E. New Mexico
  • Was producing 30 oil, 60 water, and 0 gas.
  • New perfs (upper set) added.
  • Current production: 200 water, 0 oil, and 0 gas.
  • Pump & tubing anchor set at mid perf.

Example #1 – Customer Designed Procedure

  • Set PKR above top perf for PIT and pressure test.
  • Well casing held 500 psi above PKR.
  • Logs indicate water and porosity in upper set.
  • Customer is certain water source is in new zone.
  • Run PIT for cement squeeze design.
  • Economics will only allow one attempt at fixing the problem.

Example #1 - Cardinal Recommendation

  • POOH & remove PKR.
  • Set EOT 100’ - 200’ above top perf.
  • Configure surface equipment for an Annulus TRAC-III.
  • Determine water source and flow path to wellbore.

Example #1 - Cardinal Results

Leak in CSG 400’ above top perf producing +300 bpd water. Leak is at a collar and will give up water, but not take water.

Pump removing +/- 200 bpd water to surface.

The new zone dead. It is not giving up or taking fluid.

Productive zone is taking 100 bpd water, crossflow from leaking casing.

what if
? What If ?

Which zone do you believe would have been squeezed had we followed the original request?

What if water was channeling up from below and into the bottom set of perfs?

What if water was being produced from the new zone? What would be the likely series of events?

End Result: LOST WELL

design the solution locate loss profile
Design The Solution(Locate Loss Profile)

Pump-In Tracer or Injection Profile.

A. Stationary Velocity Profile.

B. Intensity Profile

C. Channel Checks

D. Crossflow Checks

injection profiles why
Injection Profiles - Why?
  • Determine where fluids are going.
  • Check mechanical integrity of well bore.
  • Verify conformance to formation porosity.
  • Locate channels.
  • Check perforations.
  • Check fill.
  • Find scale and build-up.
  • Discover holes or unreported perforations.
injection profiles objectives
Injection Profiles - Objectives:
  • Accurate and Quantative
  • Detect Mechanical Problems
  • Detect Channels
  • Minimize Risk to Well
  • Perform economically without sacrificing quality.
injection profile log components
Injection Profile Log - Components
  • Radioactive Tracers
  • Spinner Logs
  • Temperature Logs
  • Caliper Logs
  • Collar Logs
injection profile log logs
Injection Profile Log - Logs
  • Injecting Temperature Log
  • Two Radioactive Tracer Logs
    • The Intensity Profile
    • Series of Stationary Velocity Measurements
  • Channel Checks
  • Packer Check
  • Shut-In Temperature Logs
  • Cross-Flow Checks
  • Caliper Log
injection profiles preparation operator
Injection Profiles - Preparation: Operator
  • Review well records.
  • Prepare a wellbore diagram:
    • Current condition of the well.
    • Significant past factors and changes.
    • Well bore equipment (depths, i.d.):
      • Casing, liners, tubing, packer(s), plugs, casing shoe(s).
      • Downhole control valves (mandrels).
injection profiles preparation operator54
Injection Profiles - Preparation: Operator
  • Well configuration:
    • Perforations.
    • Open hole intervals.
    • Plugged or squeezed zones
    • Known thief zones, channels, and other known areas of possible fluid loss should be indicated.
  • Well head:
    • Height.
    • Connection required.
injection profiles preparation operator55
Injection Profiles - Preparation: Operator
  • Unusual conditions:
    • Remote injection control valves.
    • High pressures (above 2000 PSI).
    • Safety hazards (hydrogen sulfide).
    • Restrictions or modifications to normal procedures.
injection profiles preparation operator56
Injection Profiles - Preparation: Operator
  • Lease and well data:
    • Maps with locations, roads, and plants.
    • Tabulation of injection rates and pressures.
    • Depth correlation logs (primary log, gamma ray, collar log).
    • Previous profile(s).
injection profiles preparation operator57
Injection Profiles - Preparation: Operator
  • Preparation of the well for survey:
    • Tubing or tail pipe 50' above the top perforation or shoe.
    • Full opening valve.
    • Stable rate 48 hours.
    • Slick line sinker bar run and T.D. check.
    • Rate meter and pressure gauge.
    • Install crown valve
    • Test valves and tree.
injection profiles preparation operator58
Injection Profiles - Preparation: Operator
  • Information needed at the well site:
    • Maps with locations, roads, and plants.
    • Tabulation of injection rates and pressures.
    • Depth correlation logs (primary log, gamma ray, collar log).
    • Well diagrams.
    • Previous profile(s).
    • MSDS as required.
    • Well history and recent workovers.

Logging Tools

  • Scintillation Detector
    • 16” to 24” radius of investigation
    • Geiger Detector is 80% less
  • O-ring sealed Ejector Port
  • Temperature Tool
    • 0.1 degrees F resolution
injection profiles procedures logging procedure
Injection Profiles - Procedures: Logging Procedure
  • Logging procedure:
    • Injecting temperature survey.
    • Gamma-ray and collar log.
      • Correlate to log provided.
    • Gamma-ray base log.
      • (Reduced sensitivity)
    • Caliper survey.
injection profiles procedures logging procedure61
Injection Profiles - Procedures: Logging Procedure
  • Logging procedure:
    • Intensity profile.
      • (One “Slug” of radioactive material.)
    • Velocity profile.
      • (Multiple stationary readings.)
    • Downward channel check, if applicable.
    • No Flow check, if applicable.
    • Upward channel check (shoe or top perf.)
injection profiles procedures logging procedure62
Injection Profiles - Procedures: Logging Procedure
  • Logging procedure:
    • Packer check.
    • Tubing drop shots.
      • (Verifies meter rate.)
    • Check injection rate and record.
    • Shut-in temperature surveys as required.
    • Crossflow checks.
      • (Necessary to interpret Shut-in Temps.)
velocity profile
Velocity Profile
  • Pi x r2 x h = Volume of a cylinder
  • Pro’s:
    • High resolution of data points
    • Limited by the spacing from ejector to detector
  • Con’s:
    • Minor plant fluctuations effect calculated rates
    • I.D. changes have a drastic effect on the calculated rates
calculations and interpretations volumetric flow rates
Calculations and Interpretations:Volumetric Flow Rates
  • Volume= PI x Dia^2 / 4 * L
  • Volumetric Flow = Vol / Time



calculations and interpretations application of volumetric rates
Calculations and Interpretations:Application of Volumetric Rates
  • Tracer Elapsed Time Runs
  • Stationary Velocities
  • Spinner Flow Meters
  • Tubing Drop Shots
  • Crossflow Checks
  • Production Log Velocities

Data Acquisition

A slug of radioactive I-131 is

released from the ejector and

the travel time is recorded till

arrival at the detector.

The volume of the cylinder

and the time of travel is used

to calculate a Barrel Per Day


velocity profile68
Velocity Profile
  • Most popular survey method
  • Seldom the best
  • 5.5” Casing Examples:
    • 0.25” build up results in a 10.69% error
    • 1.0” build up results in a 39.41% error
  • You must have a caliper log for an accurate stationary velocity survey.
calculations and interpretations caliper log required
Calculations and Interpretations:Caliper Log - Required!

In standard 5 1/2” Casing:

  • A 1/4” buildup = 11% Error!
  • A 1” buildup = 39% Error!
injection profiles example calculations
Injection ProfilesExample Calculations
  • I.D. = 4.96”
  • Reaction Time = 26.5 sec.
  • Tool Spacing = 5 ft.
  • Calculated velocity = 0.189 ft/sec
  • Calculated volumetric flow = 0.0252 cu.ft./sec
  • Flow = 388 BPD
intensity profile
Intensity Profile
  • Pro’s:
    • Not adversely affected by hole size changes
    • Not affected by plant fluctuations
    • Gives visual representation of flow patterns
  • Con’s:
    • Less resolution of data points
    • Limited by velocity of fluid and wireline speeds

Data Acquisition

One large slug of I-131 is ejected

above the zone of interest. Multiple

gamma ray passes are made up

through the slug as it travels down


Losses of radioactive material from

the slug represent the amount of

injection lost in those same areas.

intensity profiles
Intensity Profiles
  • Resolution of 20’ to 50’ between data points
    • Velocity of injected fluid
    • Mechanical limitations of wireline speed
  • Resolution enhanced by Velocity Profile
  • Usually the best profile method
calculations and interpretations intensity profile
Calculations and Interpretations:Intensity Profile
  • Tool configuration - one scintillation detector located below the ejector.
  • Readings are made versus depth.
  • Radioactive material is ejected ("slug") above the perforated or open hole interval.
  • Tools lowered approx. 20 ft. below slug, and logged through slug ("drag run").
calculations and interpretations intensity profile75
Calculations and Interpretations:Intensity Profile
  • Repeat and catch slug at frequency adequate to determine fluid loss.
  • Slug logged at the constant speed.
  • Repeat until slug stops moving or is lost to formation.
  • Loss calculations from area under curve
calculations and interpretations intensity profile76
Calculations and Interpretations:Intensity Profile
  • Quantified loss profile
  • Bottom of injection movement (or loss below L.T.D.)
  • Possible channeling outside casing
  • Possible holes in pipe or other mechanical problems.
  • Independent of wellbore diameter changes.



(“Drag Run”)


Temperature Logs can not distinguish between events occurring inside, or outside the wellbore

  • Injection Temperatures show the bottoms of fluid losses and major velocity changes
  • Shut-in Temperatures indicate the tops of events and give a relative magnitude of fluid storage
  • Injecting and Shut-in logs merging indicate the absolute bottom of fluid movement




Cross Flow Checks

Slugs of I-131 are ejected above,

between, and below the zones.

Multiple runs are pulled though all

the slugs to determine if the is fluid

is migrating between zones in the


You must know the state of the well

to interpret shut-in temperatures.


Caliper Log

Log Interpretation

Intensity Profile

Velocity Profile

Temperature Logs

No Flow Shot

Channel Check

Crossflow Check

mult rate injectivity test
Mult-Rate Injectivity Test
  • Variable conditions / pressures
  • Entries (losses) variable
  • Accurate placement of chosen solution
  • Determine treatment issues / problems

Example #2

Mechanical Isolation

Customer has flowing gas well in West Texas

Well has been acidized and fraced

Current Production Rate: 10 oil, 600 water, & 6MMcf gas

Test Objective: Reduce water without losing gas production

Production Log Indicates:

Water entry at bottom perfs with channel from below and a minor oil entry

Additional oil entry at mid-perfs.

Major gas entry at top perfs.


Example #2 - Recommendation

Isolate bottom perfs for mult-rate injection profile test.

Set PKR just below mid-perfs to allow maximum room to monitor any injected fluids channeling up hole toward gas zone.

Establish an envelope of rates and pressures that will keep treatment chemicals in desired intervals.

Rates established in the envelope will allow calculations for the selection of treatment chemicals, catalyst, and other factors needed to place and set a successful treatment.







A. .25 bpm

B. .50 bpm

C. .75 bpm

Potential Problem

D. 1.0 bpm


Rate must remain below .5 bpm to keep treatment in target zone.


? What If ?

  • We need more rate. Timing factors on the catalyst for most successful treatment in these situations requires a shorter pump time.
  • There is no envelope of rates and pressures to keep the treatment in the desired interval. All rates and pressures reach the good zone.

Mechanical-Hydro Isolation

Same well and mechanical configuration

Inject water down tubing and tubing annulus simultaneously

Vary rates and pressures to establish an acceptable envelope

Special Consideration:

How much, if any, water can be injected into primary pay without causing irreversible damage?


Hydro Isolation - Interface Logging

Forgotten Technology

  • One of the first injection profiles ever conceived
  • Still the most accurate injection profile known
  • Developed for shot hole wells
  • Resolution is limited only by pumping and metering equipment at the surface
  • More expensive than standard profile services due to time
  • Technically the best logging application for pre-treatment, real time monitoring during treatment, and real time monitoring the curing period of conformance treatments.

Well Configuration

Run blank tubing to just above PBTD

Rig up pump trucks to casing and tubing

Rig up Cardinal Tagmaster to inject I-131 into casing line


Interface Logging

  • Various Rates
  • Real Time Feedback
  • Position & Stabilize
  • Adjust Treatment
  • Pre-job
  • During Job
  • Post Job Containment

Production logging can be used to screen wells for conformance treatments by identifying wells with potential for success or ultimate failure.

Production logging gives accurate data that can be used to formulate, monitor, and keep conformance treatments in the intended interval.

Conformance treatments can be greatly enhanced with the use of proper production logging techniques and equipment


example logs
Example Logs
  • Coal Seam Annular Log
  • Flowing Production Log
  • Spectral Gamma Ray / Multi Iso Tracer