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GERMANY (DB AG) - A HOLDING COMPANY WITH 5 CORPORATE DIVISIONS. Corporate responsibility for operations is the province of the five limited companies: DB Regio (local passenger traffic) DB Reise und Touristik (long distance passenger traffic) DB Cargo (freight traffic)

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  • Corporate responsibility for operations is the province of the five limited companies:
  • DB Regio (local passenger traffic)
  • DB Reise und Touristik (long distance passenger traffic)
  • DB Cargo (freight traffic)
  • Station and Service (passenger stations)
  • DB Netz (infrastructure). There is a proposal to separate this from DB AG. It is intended it should continue to operate commercially.
  • The original plan (1994) was that all these would be privatised and DB AG abolished in2002. This has not happened yet, but a stock-market listing by 2005 is targeted, to enable DB to raise funds on the capital markets

Access Charges

  • A flexible charging system consisting of a fixed basic charge plus a variable componentdepending on train category (e.g. train type, composition and speed).

Access Rights

Access rights may be claimed on the whole German networksubject to obtaining a licence from the Transport Ministry



SNCF is the operating company

RFF is the infrastructure company, with the same legal status as SNCF

Access Charges

  • Access fee, per km per month (higher for higher speeds)
  • Reservation fee, by km and path (varies by network category and time of day – freight gets 50% reduction)
  • A constant usage fee, by train-km

Access Rights

Train paths granted only to companies located in France.

Foreign operators said not yet to be entitled to claim access rights.


SPAIN (RENFE) - Public Legal Entity Acting as Commercial Company

Assigned to Ministry of Development

RENFE has not created two separate entities. Infrastructure management is still a key task of RENFE which remains an integrated company with separate accounting systems for infrastructure and operations

Access Charges

  • Presently RENFE business units do not pay fees for use of infrastructure
  • Its proposals are:
    • An access fee (for access to the infrastructure)
    • A reservation fee (for the tracks to be reserved)
    • A performance fee (on a train-km basis)

Access Rights

Under development (most lines have a different gauge than French railways)


SWEDEN (SJ) – (traffic operations) – A state business administration

with a high degree of managerial autonomy: expected to generate its revenue

and operate on a commercial basis. Also private companies.

  • The SJ Group comprises a state business administration, with subsidiaries. But it is now being broken up into six independent state-owned companies:
  • SJ AB (passenger)
  • Green Cargo AB (freight)
  • EuroMaint AB (technical and maintenance)
  • Jernhusen AB (property)
  • Unigrid AB (data) (now privatised)
  • TraffiCare AB (terminals).

BANVERKET (BV): responsible for track management. State grants for

maintenance andmajor investment

Access Charges

  • An access fee, based on marginal costs (similar to road)
  • An infrastructure charge: a fixed element (per axle per year) and a variable element (gross tonne-km, train-km & traffic control charge)

Access Rights

Exceed the compulsory requirements of EC Directives


AUSTRIA (OeBB) – Separate legal entity owned by the state

Operations and infrastructure have separate accounting under OeBB.

A separate state-owned company, SCHIG, is responsible for infrastructure financing.

Access Charges

  • Infrastructure fee has to be paid
  • Fixed charge network access fees charged originally, now replaced by a fee based on length of time of infrastructure use

Access Rights

Granted under licence, for defined parts of the railway network, from the Minister of Transport. Open to international groupings and international combined transport operators.


DENMARK DSB (Danish State Railway) – an independent public corporation. Owns DSB Trains,

an operating company of rail services.

NRA (Danish National Railway Agency) – manages the infrastructure

DNRA is financed entirely by the State and revenue collected for usage is passed directly to the Government.

DSB operates public service transport on the basis of traffic contracts.

There are 13 integrated private railways mainly operating feeder and commuter services.

Access Charges

  • Two types of passenger transport as public service, negotiated and tendered
  • No access charges fee

Access Rights

The Minister of Transport may let contracts to tender for PSO. All approved railway operators including DSB may bid. By 2003 15% of total passenger transport outside the suburban network will be put out to tender.


BELGIUM (SNCB) – A single corporate railway undertaking

with full autonomy on decisions relating to the commercial sector.

Has separate accounting for operations and Infrastructure. Has a Government commissioner on the Board.

Access Charges

  • Under development

Access Rights

Available to SNCB for all passenger and freight operations. Also open to EU international groupings carrying out combined transport.


HOLLAND (NS) – NS is a holding company with shares 100% Government-owned.It incorporates NS Group (operations and commercial activities). The infrastructure

Is now owned by Railinfra Trust, under the Ministry of Transport

The Corporate Structure of NS Holding is as follows:

NS Cargo; NS Stations; NS Real Estate; NS Passenger; NS Rolling Stock

Railinfra Trust was separated from NS in 2001, with ownership of assets andthree task organisations:

RIB: Technical rail infrastructure management, maintenance and construction;

Railned BV (RBV): Regulates access,allocates track capacity and supervisessafety;

NSBV: Day-to-day network/train control, operational management,signalling andcontrol systems.

Access Charges

At present there is no infrastructure fee (to compensate for a ‘non-level playing field’ between road and rail transport)

Access Rights

RBV must grant access and transit rights to international groupings and railway undertakings of other member states for combined transport.


ITALY (FS) – From 1997, ajoint stock company100% state-owned.

  • The FS Group consisted of five elements but this is now being simplified. There will be two separate companies within the FS Group:
  • ITF, known as Trenitalia, for operations and rolling stock
  • ASA Rete - infrastructure

Access Charges

Trenitalia will pay track charges based on operating costs, not investment costs. Investment is paid by the Government

Access Rights

Open bidding for network access began in 2001, with invitations for bids to operate on five international corridors


PORTUGAL (CP) – Three bodies established:

  • State central administration body – regulatesoperators and
  • infrastructure managers, promotessafety andenvironmentalconservation;
  • Infrastructure management body – development andmaintenance of infrastructure and traffic control;
  • 3 A transport operator – passenger andfreight.

Access Charges

Under development

Access Rights

Under development


IRELAND (CIE) – a national statutory authority – all public surface transport.

  • Holding company owns public limited companies for rail (IE); National Bus;
  • Dublin City Bus Services, etc.
  • 2 IE Separatesaccounts for operations andinfrastructure

Access Charges

Under development : track gauge 1600 mm is incompatible with other EU railways

Access Rights

Under development


UK –British Railways replaced by:

  • Railtrack - a private infrastructure company responsible for maintaining and developing infrastructure. Obtains income from charging train operating companies (TOCs) fees for track usage. Also owns property. It subcontracts infrastructure maintenance and renewals. Now under administration

2. Train operating companies (TOCs): All passenger rail services are franchised.

There are 25 franchised TOCs.There is no national carrier. Private freight operators are running on a commercial basis, with reduced access fees.

3. Rolling Stock Operating Companies (ROSCOs): private companies for the supply and maintenance of rolling stock to the TOCs.

4. Office of the Rail Regulator (ORR): responsible for the issue and enforcement of licencesto operate trains, networks and stations. Approves agreements for access by operators to track and stations

5. Strategic Rail Authority (SRA): A Government-sponsored agency responsible for

the issuing of franchises and long term strategic planning