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Hundred Schools. Chinese Political Philosophy. The Soil for the Hundred Schools of Thought Confucianism Daoism Legalism Comparison A Game Overview: Trends in Chinese Civilization. The Soil for the Hundred Schools of Thought. Broader Global Context.

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chinese political philosophy
Chinese Political Philosophy
  • The Soil for the Hundred Schools of Thought
  • Confucianism
  • Daoism
  • Legalism
  • Comparison
  • A Game
  • Overview: Trends in Chinese Civilization
the soil for the hundred schools of thought1
The Soil for the Hundred Schools of Thought
  • Broader Global Context
  • Unraveling of Zhou Feudalism
the soil for the hundred schools of thought2
The Soil for the Hundred Schools of Thought
  • Broader Global Context
  • Unraveling of Zhou Feudalism
  • Increased Warfare/Unrest
the soil for the hundred schools of thought3
The Soil for the Hundred Schools of Thought
  • Broader Global Context
  • Unraveling of Zhou Feudalism
  • Increased Warfare/Unrest
  • Loss of Shi Influence
the soil for the hundred schools of thought4
The Soil for the Hundred Schools of Thought
  • Broader Global Context
  • Unraveling of Zhou Feudalism
  • Increased Warfare/Unrest
  • Loss of Shi Influence
  • Effect on Peasantry
the soil for the hundred schools of thought5
The Soil for the Hundred Schools of Thought
  • Broader Global Context
  • Unraveling of Zhou Feudalism
  • Increased Warfare/Unrest
  • Loss of Shi Influence
  • Effect on Peasantry
  • Trade
the soil for the hundred schools of thought6
The Soil for the Hundred Schools of Thought
  • Broader Global Context
  • Unraveling of Zhou Feudalism
  • Increased Warfare/Unrest
  • Loss of Shi Influence
  • Effect on Peasantry
  • Trade
  • Overview: Ripe Soil for Shi Speculation
confucianism
Confucianism
  • Confucius the Man (Kung Fuzi)
confucianism1
Confucianism
  • Confucius the Man (Kung Fuzi)
  • “Confucius Says”: Confucian Ideas
    • Individual Level
      • Morals/Ethics vs. Religion
confucianism2
Confucianism
  • Confucius the Man (Kung Fuzi)
  • “Confucius Says”: Confucian Ideas
    • Individual Level
      • Morals/Ethics vs. Religion
      • Key Confucian Terms
        • Li
        • Xiao (Filial Piety)
        • Ren
        • Shu
confucianism3
Confucianism
  • Confucius the Man (Kung Fuzi)
  • “Confucius Says”: Confucian Ideas
    • Individual Level
      • Morals/Ethics vs. Religion
      • Key Confucian Terms
        • Li
        • Xiao (Filial Piety)
        • Ren
        • Shu
      • Five Relationships
confucianism4
Confucianism
  • Confucius the Man (Kung Fuzi)
  • “Confucius Says”: Confucian Ideas
    • Individual Level
    • State/Political Level
      • Achieving Social Harmony by…
confucianism5
Confucianism
  • Confucius the Man (Kung Fuzi)
  • “Confucius Says”: Confucian Ideas
    • Individual Level
    • State/Political Level
      • Achieving Social Harmony by…
      • Strong Rulers and Consolidation of Political Power
confucianism6
Confucianism
  • Confucius the Man (Kung Fuzi)
  • “Confucius Says”: Confucian Ideas
    • Individual Level
    • State/Political Level
      • Achieving Social Harmony by…
      • Strong Rulers and Consolidation of Political Power
      • Good Government Through Moral Persuasion

“Lead them by means of regulations and keep order among them through punishments, and the people will evade them and will lack any sense of shame. Lead them through moral force (de) and keep order among them through rites (li), and they will have a sense of shame and will also correct themselves.”

confucianism7
Confucianism
  • Confucius the Man (Kung Fuzi)
  • “Confucius Says”: Confucian Ideas
    • Individual Level
    • State/Political Level
      • Achieving Social Harmony by…
      • Strong Rulers and Consolidation of Political Power
      • Good Government Through Moral Persuasion
      • Rulers Serve People
      • Moral Meritocracy
      • A Perfect World?
confucianism8
Confucianism
  • Confucius the Man (Kung Fuzi)
  • “Confucius Says”: Confucian Ideas
    • Individual Level
    • State/Political Level
  • A Confucian Gentleman
confucianism9
Confucianism
  • Confucius the Man (Kung Fuzi)
  • “Confucius Says”: Confucian Ideas
    • Individual Level
    • State/Political Level
  • A Confucian Gentleman
    • Respectful, Reverent
    • Filial Piety
    • “Generalist” and Moral Exemplar
confucianism10
Confucianism
  • Heirs of Confucius
    • Primary Sources: Mencius vs. Xunzi
selections from the mencius on human nature
Selections from the Mencius:On Human Nature

2A:6 All human beings have a mind that cannot bear to see the sufferings of others.

The ancient kings had a commiserating mind and, accordingly, a commiserating government.

Having a commiserating mind, a commiserating government, governing the world was like

turning something around on the palm of the hand.

… Now, if anyone were to suddenly see a child about to fall into a well, his mind would always be filled with alarm, distress, pity, and compassion. That he would react accordingly is not because he would use the opportunity to ingratiate himself with the child’s parents, nor because he would seek commendation from neighbors and friends, nor because he would hate the adverse reputation. From this it may be seen that one who lacks a mind that feels pity and compassion would not be human; one who lacks a mind that feels aversion and shame would not be human; one who lacks a mind that feels modesty and compliance would not be human; and one who lacks a mind that knows right and wrong would not be human.

selection from the xunzi human nature is evil
Selection from the Xunzi:“Human Nature Is Evil”

Human nature is evil: its goodness derives from conscious activity. Now it is human nature to

be born with a fondness for profit. Indulging this leads to contention and strife, and the sense of modesty and yielding with which one was born disappears. One is born with feelings of envy and hate, and, by indulging these, one is led into banditry and theft, so that the sense of loyalty and good faith with which he was born disappears. One is born with the desires of the ears and eyes and with a fondness for beautiful sights and sounds, and, by indulging these, one is led into licentiousness and chaos, so that the sense of ritual, rightness, refinement, and principle with which one was born is lost. Hence, following human nature and indulging human emotions will inevitably lead to contention and strife, causing one to rebel against one’s proper duty, reduce principle to chaos, and revert to violence. Therefore one must be transformed by the example of a teacher and guided by the way of ritual and rightness before one will attain modesty and yielding, accord with refinement and ritual, and return to order. …

… A questioner asks: If human nature is evil, then where do ritual and rightness come from? I

reply: ritual and rightness are always created by the conscious activity of the sages; essentially they are not created by human nature. …

If human nature were good, we could dispense with the sage kings and desist from the practice of ritual and rightness. Since human nature is evil, we must elevate the sages and esteem ritual and rightness.

confucianism11
Confucianism
  • Heirs of Confucius
    • Primary Sources: Mencius vs. Xunzi
    • Mencius
      • Human Nature
      • So Rulers should…
confucianism12
Confucianism
  • Heirs of Confucius
    • Primary Sources: Mencius vs. Xunzi
    • Mencius
      • Human Nature
      • So Rulers should…
    • Xunzi
      • Human Nature
      • So Rulers should…
      • Impact
daoism
Daoism
  • Origins
    • Different Reaction to Warring States
    • Laozi and Daodejing
daoism1
Daoism
  • Origins
    • Different Reaction to Warring States
    • Laozi and Daodejing
  • Ideas
    • The Dao
    • Becoming one with the Dao
      • Intuitive not Intellectual
      • Retreat into Nature
a daoist poem
A Daoist Poem

It is wisdom to know others

It is enlightenment to know one’s self

The conqueror of men is powerful

The master of himself is stronger

It is wealth to be content

It is willful to force one’s way on others

So what is the desired behavior?

daoism2
Daoism
  • Origins
    • Different Reaction to Warring States
    • Laozi and Daodejing
  • Ideas
    • The Dao
    • Becoming one with the Dao
      • Intuitive not Intellectual
      • Retreat into Nature
      • Wu Wei
daoism3
Daoism
  • Origins
    • Different Reaction to Warring States
    • Laozi and Daodejing
  • Ideas
    • The Dao
    • Becoming one with the Dao
      • Intuitive not Intellectual
      • Retreat into Nature
      • Wu Wei
  • Political Ideas
    • Overall, Little Use for Politics
another daoist poem
Another Daoist Poem

I take no action and the people are reformed

I enjoy peace and people become honest

I do nothing and people become rich.

I have no desires and people return to the good and simple life

How should rulers behave?

How do you know if a ruler is doing a good job?

daoism4
Daoism
  • Origins
    • Different Reaction to Warring States
    • Laozi and Daodejing
  • Ideas
    • The Dao
    • Becoming one with the Dao
      • Intuitive not Intellectual
      • Retreat into Nature
      • Wu Wei
  • Political Ideas
    • Overall, Little Use for Politics
    • Still Had a Critique of Government
      • Ideal Rulers
      • Compare to Confucianism
      • Wu Wei as political philosophy
daoism5
Daoism
  • Origins
    • Different Reaction to Warring States
    • Laozi and Daodejing
  • Ideas
  • Political Ideas
    • Overall, Little Use for Politics
    • Still Had a Critique of Government
      • Ideal Rulers
      • Compare to Confucianism
      • Wu Wei as political philosophy
  • Development
    • Original Philosophical Daoism
    • Religious Daoism
daoism6
Daoism
  • Origins
    • Different Reaction to Warring States
    • Laozi and Daodejing
  • Ideas
  • Political Ideas
    • Overall, Little Use for Politics
    • Still Had a Critique of Government
      • Ideal Rulers
      • Compare to Confucianism
      • Wu Wei as political philosophy
  • Development
    • Original Philosophical Daoism
    • Religious Daoism
  • Impact
legalism
Legalism
  • Overview
legalism1
Legalism
  • Overview
  • Prominent Figures
    • Shang Yang (Book of Lord Shang)
      • Goal
      • People
      • Laws
legalism2
Legalism
  • Overview
  • Prominent Figures
    • Shang Yang (Book of Lord Shang)
      • Goal
      • People
      • Laws
    • Xunzi
legalism3
Legalism
  • Overview
  • Prominent Figures
    • Shang Yang (Book of Lord Shang)
      • Goal
      • People
      • Laws
    • Xunzi
    • Han Feizi
      • Punitive Laws
      • Group Responsibility
      • Rewards and Punishments
legalist writings of han feizi
Legalist Writings of Han Feizi
  • What do kindness/generosity do?
  • How does the outlined portion compare to the writings of Confucius/Mencius?
legalist writings of han feizi1
Legalist Writings of Han Feizi
  • What is Han Feizi’s Critique of Confucianism?
legalist writings of han feizi2
Legalist Writings of Han Feizi
  • What does Han Feizi say about winning the hearts of people?
  • Is it a problem when people are angry?
legalism4
Legalism
  • Overview
  • Prominent Figures
    • Shang Yang (Book of Lord Shang)
      • Goal
      • People
      • Laws
    • Xunzi
    • Han Feizi
      • Punitive Laws
      • Group Responsibility
      • Rewards and Punishments
  • Ideas
    • The Need for Laws
    • Power of the state>Benefit of People
    • Efficient Bureaucracy
    • Pragmatism vs. Morality
legalism5
Legalism
  • Overview
  • Prominent Figures
    • Shang Yang (Book of Lord Shang)
    • Xunzi
    • Han Feizi
  • Ideas
    • The Need for Laws
    • Power of the state>Benefit of People
    • Efficient Bureaucracy
    • Pragmatism vs. Morality
  • Legacy
trends in chinese civilization
Trends in Chinese Civilization
  • Contemplemtary Bipolarity
    • “Harmony based on hierarchical Difference”
trends in chinese civilization1
Trends in Chinese Civilization
  • Contemplemtary Bipolarity
    • “Harmony based on hierarchical Difference”
  • Focus on Ethics
trends in chinese civilization2
Trends in Chinese Civilization
  • Contemplemtary Bipolarity
    • “Harmony based on hierarchical Difference”
  • Focus on Ethics
  • Ritual (li)
    • What is ritual?
    • What does it do?
    • Role in Chinese Culture