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Using Data to Make Your Trucking or Logistics Company more efficient and profitable for the Traffic Club of Memphis . Dan Pallme, Director 4/8/2014. Contents. Set the Stage: Memphis, TN Background Literature Review Research Objectives Case Study Descriptions Conclusions

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Using Data to Make Your Trucking or Logistics Company more efficient and profitable for the Traffic Club of Memphis

Dan Pallme, Director 4/8/2014

contents
Contents
  • Set the Stage: Memphis, TN
  • Background
  • Literature Review
  • Research Objectives
  • Case Study Descriptions
  • Conclusions
  • Memphis – Are you prepared?
set the stage memphis
Set the Stage: Memphis

5class one railroadsserving one region

set the stage memphis1
Set the Stage: Memphis

4thlargest inland waterport in the USA

set the stage memphis2
Set the Stage: Memphis

Nation’s3rdbusiest trucking corridor

set the stage memphis3
Set the Stage: Memphis

2modes moving time sensitive freight

set the stage memphis4
Set the Stage: Memphis

1university leading the way researching how to keep America’s business moving

background
Background
  • The efficient freight transportation planning is based on the existence of an accurate and comprehensive database
  • GPS data provide the ability to track singular vehicle movements and the corresponding trip characteristics
  • This information can reduce the number of assumptions and increase the accuracyof analysis
  • Therefore, GPS data can be extremely useful in freight planning and research
  • Research topics could include the development of freight performance measures, the evaluation of freight policies, etc.
1 st case study gps data for developing fpms
1stCase Study: GPS Data for Developing FPMs
  • Freight movementis a significant aspect of transportation planning and economic success of a region
  • Therefore, it is important to developFreight Performance Measures (FPMs)
  • With MAP-21, new incentives are in place for (DOTs) to integrate FPMs into transportation planningand operations
  • GPSdata can be extremely useful in developing FPMs
  • With FPMs, agencies can have additional tools for more effective freight transportation planning and research
literature review freight performance measures
Literature Review(Freight Performance Measures)
  • Mallet et al., 2006
    • FHWA created the Freight Performance Measure Initiative in 2002, to address the lack of data on freight movements and its impact on congestion
    • The initiative focused on collecting travel time data for freight corridors and delay times at border crossings combined with urban congestion data
  • Gordon Proctor & Assoc., 2011
    • In 2010, the National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) produced a report defining PMs related to freight
    • Analysis included the highest freight movement in the U.S. by different modes of transportation
    • The report focused on different FPMs such as average speeds, travel time, link delay, miles of congested roadway, travel rate cost-per-mile, driver wages, fuel cost, number of crashes, cost of crashes, etc.
literature review freight performance measures1
Literature Review(Freight Performance Measures)
  • Southworth et al., 2011
    • FHWA collected and published the results of the Commodity Flow Survey taken every five years since 2007 called the Freight Analysis Framework (FAF)
    • Database provided detailed information on commodity tonnage by mode but did not provide enough data regarding single vehicle movements, required for many FPMs
  • McCormack, 2009
    • Collecting and processing truck GPS data to evaluate network performance
    • Travel time and reliability were found to be the most common performance measures
    • GPS Data can be very useful for public agencies. Data limitations and cost are major concerns
literature review gps data in fpms development
Literature Review(GPS data in FPMs development)
  • Figliozziet al., 2011
    • Processing truck GPS data to produce performance measures
    • Study focused on analyzing the travel time reliability of specific corridors
    • Data provided by ATRI
  • Wang et al., 2014
    • Suggested a methodology to estimate link travel time using GPS data
    • Mapping methods were found to be more efficient compared to naïve methods
research objectives
Research Objectives

Describe case studies of utilizing GPS data in freight transportation research

1st Case Study: Use GPS Data to Develop FPMs

  • Develop truck travel demand and temporal patterns on interstates and intermodal freight facilities

2ndCase Study: Use GPS Data to evaluate a freight policy

  • Evaluate the impact of new HOS rules on traffic congestion

3rdCase Study: Using real data from a Memphis West Coast Railroad

  • What does it mean
case study area
Case Study Area
  • Case study area included:
    • a 212 miles long segment on I-40 between Memphis and Nashville, TN
    • major freight facilities within the borders of the greater Memphis area

Memphis Study Area

I-40 between Memphis and Nashville, TN

dataset characteristics
Dataset Characteristics
  • Dataset provided by American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI)
  • GPS database comprised of attributes such as truck routes and trip characteristics
  • The database included:
    • Truck unique ID
    • Truck location
    • Date and time of observation
    • Truck speed and heading
  • Data analyzed for a two-month period (Sep. –Oct. 2011), 3%-8% of total truck population
facilities turn time prediction model
Facilities Turn Time Prediction Model
  • Regression models were developed to predict turn times using truck volumes as the predictor
  • Variables for model development:
    • Y: turn-time of the facility (min)
    • x1: volume per time interval
  • Three time intervals (15 min, 30 min, and 60 min) were tested for each facility
  • A 5-fold “Hold Out” cross validation technique was applied for selecting the most representative models
2 nd case study gps data for evaluating policies
2nd Case Study: GPS Data for Evaluating Policies
  • 276,000 large trucks were involved in highway crashes during 2010 in the U.S. (NHTSA, 2012)
  • The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), proposed new HOS rules to improve safety standards
  • HOS rules define the allowable drivingand workinghours and the required restperiods
  • New regulation created significant controversyregarding the potential effectson truck operationsand congestion
  • GPS data can be used to evaluate the impactof new HOS rules on traffic congestion
hours of service hos regulation
Hours-of Service (HOS) Regulation

“Formerly, when a driver finished work between 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. on Saturday, he could go back to work Sunday night. Now he can’t start until 5 a.m. Monday”

Source: http://www.truckinginfo.com/channel/fleet-management/article/story/2013/08/the-effects-of-the-new-hours-of-service.aspx

literature review hos rules development
Literature Review(HOS Rules Development)
  • Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), 1936(Source: FMCSA, 2000)
    • First attempt of regulating HOS rules
    • Maximum 15 on-duty hours per day (12 working hours + 3 hour rest periods)
    • Maximum 60 on-duty hours per week or 70 hours per 8 continuous days
  • Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), 1962 (Source: FMCSA, 2000)
    • 24-hour restrictions no longer exist
    • 8-hour off duty recovery period
    • Maximum allowable number of 10 hours continuous driving
  • Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), 2003 (Source: FMCSA, 2011)
    • Maximum allowable working hours were set to 14 per 24 hours
    • 10-hour off-duty recovery period
    • Maximum of 11 hours continuous driving
    • Drivers could start a new weekly working period after 34 continuous hours of rest
literature review impact of new hos rules
Literature Review(Impact of new HOS Rules)
  • Blanchard, 2012
    • High level of rejection of new regulation among truck drivers
    • Increased congestion during peak hours
    • Potential increase in crash rates due to increased interaction with passenger vehicles
  • SCDigestEditorial Staff, 2013
    • Many believe that the impact on productivity will be minor, about 1.5%, due to the limited number of long-haul drivers which the restart period is expected to have the greatest effect
  • American Shipper, 2013
    • Need for additional drivers due to new rules
    • Driver shortage could result in higher operation costs
    • Potential late deliveries
impact of hos rules
Impact of HOS Rules
  • Methodology focused on tracking the impact of new rules on congestion after identifying the change in Level of Service (LOS)

The HCM methodology (HCM, 2000)

for LOS estimation was modified to

utilize GPS data

impact of new rules on congestion
Impact of New Rules on Congestion

LOS was calculated for a 4.5 miles long highway segment on I-40 at Exit 201A

3rd case study applying real world data
3rd Case Study: Applying Real-World Data
  • Class 1 Western Railroad
  • Large portion of traffic that moves to the Nashville area
  • Data: 6 am – 9 am on Mondays and Fridays
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* Extreme weather event: snow & ice

  • Holiday week taking out of the data
results
Results
  • 10% more activity due at the gates on Monday over Friday
  • 23% more activity in volumes on Monday over Friday
  • Was this due to HOS?
conclusions on research
Conclusions on Research

GPS data can be extremely useful in freight research.

Three case studies of utilizing GPS data were presented

  • In the first case study, truck travel demand and temporal patterns on interstates and intermodal freight facilities were developed
  • The second case study focused on evaluating the impact of a freight policy (new HOS rules) on congestion
  • Future research
    • Combined GPS data with commodity and trip time information to develop a comprehensive description of freight movements by trucks in TN
    • Comparison analysis of data before HOS took place and now
    • Comparison analysis of gate activity broken down by in-bound and out-bound
state of tennessee philosophy
State of Tennessee Philosophy

Article in the Memphis Business Journal yesterday.

http://www.bizjournals.com/memphis/blog/2014/04/tennessee-transportation-funding-reflects-federal.html?ana=e_du_pub&s=article_du&ed=2014-04-07

  • Highlights
    • Gov. Bill Haslam and TDOT unveiled 3 year $1.5 Billion budget
      • 59 transportation projects
      • 41 Counties
      • 14 Statewide Program
    • TDOT will adopt a “pay-as-you-go” strategy
    • Tennessee is only one of four states whose transportation systems carry no debt
future construction around memphis and shelby county that will impact travel patterns
Future Construction around Memphis and Shelby County – That will impact travel patterns
  • I-40 / I-240 Interchange - $100 million
    • http://www.tdot.state.tn.us/i40-240memphis/
    • Now through Summer, 2017
  • I-55 / Crump Boulevard Interchange Improvement - $35.7 million
    • http://www.tdot.state.tn.us/i55/
    • Buying right of way
    • Timeframe: 3 years (estimated completion 2020)
  • Lamar Corridor $637.9 million
    • http://www.tdot.state.tn.us/documents/LamarAvenueCorridor_June2011.pdf
    • Buying right of way
    • Timeframe: 8 years: 2023 at the earliest
  • Southern Gateway Project $1 Billion
    • http://www.southerngatewayproject.com
    • Where?
    • Timeframe: EIS should be completed next year
recommendations
Recommendations
  • Be prepared
  • Use data!
  • Collaboration
  • Off peak
  • Pricing considerations
  • Potential operational changes?
  • What great infrastructure we will have when it is done!!!!
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Dan Pallme

depallme@memphis.edu

http://www.memphis.edu/ifti