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Part 1. Carbohydrates. Bond energy. When bonds are broken, energy (E) is released for use. When bonds are made, energy (E) is stored. Glucose: A Monosaccharide. Fructose: A Monosaccharide. Sucrose: A Disaccharide. Carbohydrates. 1. Carbohydrates are: an important energy (E) source

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Part 1 l.jpg
Part 1

  • Carbohydrates


Bond energy l.jpg
Bond energy

  • When bonds are broken, energy (E) is released for use.

  • When bonds are made, energy (E) is stored.

Glucose: A Monosaccharide

Fructose: A Monosaccharide

Sucrose: A Disaccharide


Carbohydrates l.jpg
Carbohydrates

1. Carbohydrates are:

  • an important energy (E) source

  • Cellular structures

    2. Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1

    3. General Formula (CH2O)n

C

H2O

hydrate

Water = hydrate

Carbon


Types of carbohydrates l.jpg
Types of Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides (simplesugars)

  • Contain 3-7 Carbons each

  • Examples: Glucose, Galactose, Fructose

  • Glucose


    Types of carbohydrates cont l.jpg
    Types of Carbohydrates, cont…

    Disaccharides (twosugars)

    • Examples: Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose

      • Maltose = Glucose + Glucose

      • Lactose = Glucose + Galactose

    Sucrose

    Glucose

    Fructose


    Types of carbohydrates cont6 l.jpg
    Types of Carbohydrates, cont…

    Polysaccharides (manysugars)

    • Examples: Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose

    Cellulose

    Starch

    Chloroplast

    Starch

    Liver Cell

    Cellulose

    Plant Cells

    Glycogen

    Plant Cells


    Check for understanding l.jpg
    Check for Understanding…

    I’m a carbohydrate polymer made of 4 monomers. What are my monomers called?

    Monosaccharides, of course!


    Part 2 bond energy and energy storing compounds l.jpg

    Part 2Bond Energy and Energy Storing Compounds

    ATP, NADPH, FADH2, NADH


    How is energy stored in organic compounds l.jpg
    How is energy stored in organic compounds?

    • When bonds are made by dehydration synthesis, energy is stored within the bonds of the compounds.


    How is energy released l.jpg
    How is energy released?

    • When bonds are broken by hydrolysis, energy is released from the bonds.


    What are some examples of common energy storing compounds l.jpg
    What are some examples of common energy storing compounds?

    • ATP (Most important usable energy for the cell.)

    • NADPH

    • FADH2

    • NADH


    How is atp made l.jpg
    How is ATP made?

    • ATP is made from the precursor AMP (Adenosine Mono-phosphate)

    • If a phophate and energy is added to AMP, ADP is created.

    • Furthermore, if another phosphate is added to ADP, ATP is created.


    How atp is made l.jpg

    A

    P

    A

    P

    P

    A

    P

    P

    P

    How ATP is Made

    • AMP

    • ADP

    • ATP


    Equation for atp synthesis l.jpg
    Equation for ATP synthesis

    • ADP + P + energy  ATP


    How are nadph fadh2 and nadh made l.jpg
    How are NADPH, FADH2, and NADH made?

    • NADP+ + H+ + electrons  NADPH

    • FAD+ + H+ + electrons  FADH2

    • NAD+ + H+ + electrons  NADH

    • Notice that high energy electrons and hydrogen ions are needed to create NADPH, FADH2 and NADH.


    Part 3 introduction to photosynthesis l.jpg
    Part 3Introduction to Photosynthesis


    Slide17 l.jpg

    1. Mesophyll

    1. Mesophyll

    A layer of cells that contain & are responsible for most of the plant’s photosynthesis

    chloroplasts

    Page 2


    Slide18 l.jpg

    Page 2

    O2

    CO2

    2. Stomata

    Openings in plant leaves that allow for to occur

    gas exchange

    Carbon Dioxide

    (CO2) passes in and (O2) passes out.

    Oxygen


    Slide19 l.jpg

    Mesophyll Cell

    3. Chloroplast

    The site of

    Photosynthesis

    Double-membrane bound organelle

    4. Outer membrane

    5. Inner membrane

    Page 2


    Slide20 l.jpg

    8. Grana

    6. Stroma

    7. Thylakoid

    resides in these membranes

    Chlorophyll

    8. Grana

    Page 2


    Pathway of photosynthesis l.jpg

    Page 4

    Pathway of Photosynthesis

    On your own, balance this equation:

    CO2 + H2O + (Light) C6H12O6 + O2

    Reactants must equal Products

    6

    6

    1

    6

    6

    6

    Carbon

    Hydrogen

    Oxygen

    Carbon

    Hydrogen

    Oxygen

    12

    12

    18

    18



    Slide23 l.jpg

    Page 4 provided


    Slide24 l.jpg

    Page 4 provided


    Photosynthesis the light reaction l.jpg
    Photosynthesis: The Light Reaction provided

    Chloroplasts

    • are chemical factories powered by the sun.

    • Their thylakoids transform light energy into the energy of and .

    NADPH

    ATP

    Page 5


    The nature of light l.jpg
    The Nature of Light provided

    Page 5


    Slide27 l.jpg

    The Nature of Light provided

    • The particles of light are called .

    photons

    Page 5


    Why are leaves green substances that absorb light are called l.jpg

    Page 5 provided

    Why are leaves green?Substances that absorb light are called

    pigments

    Carotenoids

    Chlorophyll a

    Chlorophyll b

    Chlorophyll absorbs and light, reflecting

    red

    blue

    green


    Fluorescence of chlorophyll l.jpg
    Fluorescence of Chlorophyll provided

    High energy state

    e-

    Heat

    Energy of electron

    Photon

    Fluorescence

    Ground state

    Chlorophyll molecule


    Photosystems harvest light l.jpg
    Photosystems: Harvest Light provided

    Photon

    Primary Electron Acceptor

    Electron Transfer (high energy state)

    Reaction Center Chlorophyll

    Transfer of Energy

    Antenna pigment molecules


    Light reaction l.jpg
    Light Reaction provided

    5)

    Primary Acceptor

    2e-

    2e-

    Primary Acceptor

    Energy of Electrons

    ETC

    NADP+ + H+

    NADPH making enzyme

    Electron Transport Chain (ETC)

    2) Spliiting of water releases O2 gas and refills 2e-

    NADPH

    3) Electrons “fall” in energy, moving through a protein complex called the ETC, and ATP is created from this energy

    H2O

    2H+ + O2

    2e-

    4) photons

    1) photons

    2 e-

    ATP

    Photosystem I

    Photosystem II


    Mechanical analogy for the light reactions l.jpg
    Mechanical analogy for the light reactions provided

    • Photon excites an electron in Photosystem II

    • ATP is produced during this stage (ETC)

    • The electron moves on to Photosystem I

    • An electron is excited by another photon

    • NADPH is produced


    Atp synthetase l.jpg
    ATP Synthetase provided

    • An enzyme embedded in the

    thylakoid membrane

    • Creates ATP from the electron’s energy in the ETC

    Thylakoid membrane


    Slide34 l.jpg

    Protein providedComplex

    Enzyme



    Slide36 l.jpg

    NADP+ provided

    NADPH

    +

    +

    4e-

    2e-

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    ATP

    ADP

    Pi


    Dark reaction an overview l.jpg
    Dark Reaction: providedAn Overview

    • The General Formula for Photosynthesis is:

      6CO2 + 6H2O + (Light )  C6H12O6 +6O2

    • Which of these reactants has not been accounted for so far?


    Atp nadph energy are used to convert co 2 into glucose l.jpg

    ATP provided

    ATP & NADPH energy are used to convert CO2 into glucose

    NADPH

    CO2

    This is done in a three-phase cycle…

    Sugar!


    Slide39 l.jpg

    STEP 1: Carbon fixation provided

    5-Carbon Sugar (RuBP)

    + CO2

    two 3-Carbon Compounds (PGA)

    RuBP

    PGA


    Slide40 l.jpg

    ATP and NADPH energy is used provided

    This energy rearranges atoms of PGA

    PGA changes into PGAL, a different 3-carbon sugar

    Phase 2: Makes PGAL, a 3-Carbon sugar

    PGAL




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