Monstrous mutations
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MONSTROUS MUTATIONS!!!. What is a mutation?. Mutations are changes in DNA! However, these simple changes or mistakes can cause big changes in phenotypes of organisms!. Mutations in reproductive cells…. If a mutation happened during the creation of the reproductive cells…

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What is a mutation
What is a mutation?

  • Mutations are changes in DNA!

  • However, these simple changes or mistakes can cause big changes in phenotypes of organisms!

Mutations in reproductive cells
Mutations in reproductive cells…

  • If a mutation happened during the creation of the reproductive cells…

    • There could be non-functioning cells

    • New traits might be produced

    • Proteins may not work correctly

    • Embryo may not survive 

  • There can be positive effects though!

    • Faster or stronger cells!

Mutations in body cells
Mutations in body cells…

  • If mutation is caused by radiation and it is a non-reproductive cell, the mutation may not be passed on to the offspring.

  • However, the mutation could cause problems for the individual.

  • Damage to the gene could impair the function of the cell.

    • Muscle cell may lose its ability to make the protein necessary for contraction

    • Skin cell may lose its elasticity.

Mutations in body cells1
Mutations in body cells…

  • When the cells divide, the new cells will have the same mutation!

  • Aging may be caused by a buildup of these mutated cells!

  • Cancer is also caused by a mutation in the cell’s rate of division.

Point mutations
Point Mutations

  • A point mutation changes a single base pair in the DNA sequence.

  • What could this cause?

    • Change in amino acid sequence



      This is a BIG difference!

  • In general, point mutations are less harmful than other mutations because it only changes one base in the sequence.

Frameshift mutations
Frameshift Mutations

  • A frameshift mutation occurs when a single base is added or deleted from the DNA sequence.

  • This is a problem because it shifts the reading of codons by one base and thus a totally different protein is produced!

Chromosomal mutations
Chromosomal Mutations

  • Chromosomal mutations are changes at the chromosomal level.

  • Some of these changes may be caused by:

    • Chromosome parts breaking off

    • Lost parts of chromosomes

    • Parts that rejoin incorrectly

    • Parts that rejoin backwards or even the wrong chromosome part

Effects of chromosomal mutations
Effects of Chromosomal Mutations:

  • Occurs most often in plants!

  • Few chromosomal mutations are passed on to the next generation because the zygote usually dies.

  • If the zygote lives and grows up, usually it is sterile and cannot produce offspring or pass on the mutated genes.

Causes of mutations
Causes of Mutations

  • Some mutations just happen! Similar to a silly mistake on a math problem. These are called SPONTANEOUS mutations!

  • Many mutations are caused by environmental factors, such as, radiation.

  • MUTAGENS are agents that can cause errors in DNA.

    • EX: high energy radiation, chemicals, high temperatures.