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Learning goals. Understand the main classifications of psychological disorders and common diagnoses Identify the various origins of psychological disorders Identify characteristics or criteria that may indicate a psychological disorder. Discussion questions:.

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Learning goals
Learning goals

  • Understand the main classifications of psychological disorders and common diagnoses

  • Identify the various origins of psychological disorders

  • Identify characteristics or criteria that may indicate a psychological disorder


Discussion questions
Discussion questions:

  • Look at the definition of a psychological disorder. Do you think this definition is adequate? Explain.

  • What are the advantages and disadvantages to labeling people with various psychological disorders?


General categories of disorders
General Categories of Disorders

  • There are numerous types of psychological disorders and thousands of specific diagnosis

  • Common categories:

    • Anxiety Disorders

    • Somatoform Disorders

    • Dissociative Disorders

    • Mood Disorders

    • Schizophrenia Disorders

    • Personality Disorders


Psychological disorders
Psychological Disorders

  • behavior is atypical, disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable

  • origins of psychological disorders:

    • medical model (biological perspective)

    • social-cultural perspective

    • behavioral (learning) perspective

    • cognitive perspective

    • psychoanalytic perspective


Anxiety disorders
Anxiety Disorders

  • intense, distressing, persistent anxiety -or- maladaptive behaviors to reduce anxiety

  • types:

    • generalized anxiety disorder

    • phobic disorders

    • obsessive-compulsive disorder


Generalized anxiety disorder
Generalized anxiety disorder

  • continual apprehension, tension and arousal

  • constant autonomic nervous system arousal

  • person has difficulty identifying causes of the tension/fear and thus cannot avoid it

  • may experience panic attacks

    • short episodes of intense fear/terror

  • person often responds by isolating self


Phobic disorders
Phobic Disorders

  • persistent, irrational, maladaptive fear of a specific object, activity or situation

  • develop coping mechanisms to avoid/deal with feared object

  • examples:

    • agoraphobia xenophobia

    • claustrophobia mikrophobia

    • uxoriphobia phonophobia

    • phobophobia triskaidekaphobia


Obsessive compulsive disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  • persistent, maladaptive, unwanted repetitive thoughts or actions

  • repetitive thoughts/actions that interfere with daily life or cause distress

  • obsessions

    • repetitive thoughts

  • compulsions

    • repetitive behaviors


Explaining anxiety disorders
Explaining anxiety disorders

  • psychoanalytic perspective

    • childhood repression of intolerable ideas, events or feelings

  • learning (behavioral) perspective

    • learn fears through conditioning or past experiences

  • biological perspective

    • innate disposition to fear certain objects (things deemed dangerous to survival)

    • overarousal of certain brain areas (impulse control and habits)


Somatoform disorders
Somatoform Disorders

  • distressing physical symptoms with no apparent physical cause

  • factors:

    • physical functioning must be lost or altered

    • symptoms cannot be explained by a know physical condition

    • indication that psychological factors have produced the symptom

    • victims frequently indifferent to the physical loss

    • symptoms not under voluntary control


Somatoform disorders1
Somatoform Disorders

  • conversion disorder

    • specific, genuine physical problem with no physiological explanation

    • example- paralysis from the waist down may be due to history of sexual abuse

  • hypochondriasis

    • misinterpretation of normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease

    • example- think that a headache is an indication of a brain tumor


Dissociative disorders
Dissociative Disorders

  • Have you ever walked in your sleep?

  • Did you have imaginary playmates as a child?

  • Were you physically abused as a child?

  • Were you sexually abused as a child?

  • Have you ever noticed that things are missing from your personal possessions?

  • Have you ever noticed that things appear where you live, but you don’t know how?


Dissociative disorders1
Dissociative Disorders

  • Do people ever talk to you as if they know you but you don’t’ know them?

  • Do you ever speak about yourself as “we” or “us”?

  • Do you ever feel that there is another person or persons inside you?

  • If there is another person inside you, does he or she ever come out and take control of your body?


Dissociative disorders2
Dissociative Disorders

  • conscious awareness is separated from previous memories/thoughts/feelings

  • sudden loss of memory or change in identity

  • believed to be caused by severe, extended trauma

  • types:

    • amnesia

    • fugue

    • dissociative identity disorder


Dissociative disorders3
Dissociative Disorders

  • amnesia

    • failure to recall past events or information

    • usually caused by extreme, intolerable stress

    • selectively forget painful or stressful information

  • fugue

    • in addition to amnesia, leave home and identity

    • very abrupt beginning and ending

    • duration varies


Dissociative disorders4
Dissociative Disorders

  • dissociative identity disorder

    • formerly called multiple personality disorder

    • multiple, distinct personalities

    • result of severe trauma (physical, emotional, sexual)

    • may be a relationship to “role-playing”


Mood disorders
Mood Disorders

  • emotional extremes (extremely high or low)

  • main types:

    • major depressive disorder

      • prolonged hopelessness, lack of energy, despair, or lack of interest in regular activities

    • bipolar disorder

      • alternate between being very high (mania) and very low (depression)

      • formerly called manic-depressive disorder

      • mania- wildly optimistic state


Explaining mood disorders
Explaining mood disorders

  • psychoanalytic perspective

    • moods caused by associations to unconscious childhood impulses

  • biological perspective

    • genetic influence (may be inherited)

    • chemical imbalances in the brain

  • social-cultural perspective

    • moods are shaped and influenced by our surroundings


Schizophrenia disorders
Schizophrenia Disorders

  • disorganized/deluded thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions/actions

  • often suffer from delusions (false beliefs) and hallucinations (sensory experience without any actual sensory stimulation)

  • believed to be caused by brain abnormalities, genetic predisposition, and psychological/environmental factors


Personality disorders
Personality Disorders

  • inflexible and enduring patterns of behavior that impair regular social functioning

  • can coexist with other psychological disorders

  • examples:

    • antisocial

    • histrionic

    • narcissistic

    • borderline