What impact do they have on equal rights and law?. Stereotypes, Prejudice, & Discrimination. Stereotypes. Means “set image.” Involves generalizations about the “typical” characteristics of members of a group .
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What impact do they have on equal rights and law? Stereotypes, Prejudice, & Discrimination
Stereotypes • Means “set image.” • Involves generalizations about the “typical” characteristics of members of a group. • Label that applies to members of certain groups, regardless of their individuality. • Usually based on incomplete information. • Can be positive, but usually negative. • Applied to many factors: i.e. class, gender, race, age, ethnicity.
Examples of Stereotypes: • All women are dangerous drivers. • All Asian people are superior at Math. • All people living at Jane and Finch are gang members.
Prejudice • A preconceived opinion, belief, or attitude about a group of people that is applied to an individual. • Literally means “prejudgment.” • A prejudiced person pre-judges another individual based on the fact that he/she belongs to a group, not on actual character, skill, personality, etc. • Prejudiced opinions are based on ignorance, not fact. • Stereotypes lead to prejudice.
Stereotype → Prejudice Stereotype All women are dangerous drivers. leads to… Prejudice Jessica can’t drive because she is female.
Stereotype → Prejudice Stereotype All Asian people are superior at Math. leads to… Prejudice Kevin is going to ace his Math test because he is Asian.
Stereotype → Prejudice Stereotype All people living at Jane and Finch are gang members. leads to… Prejudice Ms. Kosh is part of a gang because she grew up at Jane and Finch.
Discrimination • Occurs when people act on a prejudice or stereotype and treat others unfairly. • Discrimination is illegal, unlike prejudice and stereotyping, because it violates the human rights of individuals.
Stereotype → Prejudice → Discrimination Stereotype All women are dangerous drivers. leads to… Prejudice Jessica can’t drive because she is female. leads to… Discrimination Jessica is not hired as a limo driver because she is female.
Stereotype → Prejudice → Discrimination Stereotype All Asian people are superior at Math. leads to… Prejudice Kevin is going to ace his Math test because he is Asian. leads to… Discrimination Kevin is given a harder test by his teacher because he is Asian.
Stereotype → Prejudice → Discrimination Stereotype All people living at Jane and Finch are gang members. leads to… Prejudice Ms. Koch is part of a gang because she lives at Jane and Finch. leads to… Discrimination Ms. Koch is not hired as a teacher because she lives at Jane and Finch and must be a gang member.
Types of Discrimination • Discrimination can be either • intentional (differential treatment) • unintentional (adverse effect discrimination)
Intentional Discrimination • Happens when a person or organization knowingly commits a discriminatory act. • It is the treatment of others that is unfair (on the basis of prejudice or stereotype) and on purpose. • For example: A woman is not hired for a job simply because the employer does not think women are good workers.
Unintentional Discrimination • Occurs when people or organizations treat others unfairly but are not aware that they are discriminating. • The actions may appear to be neutral but they have the effect of discriminating against most members of a group. • For example: a woman applies to become a firefighter. She must pass a fitness test that is impossible for her or any other woman to pass, and she is denied the job as a firefighter.
Is Discrimination Ever Allowed? • Sometimes employers have standards that are necessary to perform a job safely and efficiently. • In these circumstances, the employer has to prove that the standard is a BONA FIDE OCCUPATIONAL REQUIREMENT – that the standard is necessary to perform the job effectively. • Forms a possible defence against unfair discrimination in hiring and other employment situations. • For example: An airline has a policy of not hiring those who are visually impaired to fly their planes. While this does discriminate against the visually impaired, it would be considered a bona fide occupational requirement, because it would be unsafe to allow a visually impaired person to fly a plane.
Canadian Human Rights Act, 1977 • Protects people from discrimination • Applies to federal government departments and businesses falling under federal control (ex. postal services, banks, airlines, rail services, etc.) • Bans discrimination on several grounds including race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, and conviction for which a pardon has been granted