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“If you think nobody cares if you’re alive, try missing a couple of car payments.” Earl Wilson US Representati PowerPoint Presentation
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“If you think nobody cares if you’re alive, try missing a couple of car payments.” Earl Wilson US Representative. Money and Banking. Chapter Objectives. The Functions of Money and the Components of the U.S. Money Supply What “Backs” the Money Supply, Making Us Willing to Accept It?

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“If you think nobody cares if you’re alive, try missinga couple of car payments.”Earl WilsonUS Representative

Money and

Banking

chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives
  • The Functions of Money and the Components of the U.S. Money Supply
  • What “Backs” the Money Supply, Making Us Willing to Accept It?
  • The Makeup of the Federal Reserve and the U.S. Banking System
  • The Functions and Responsibilities of the Federal Reserve
money defined the functions of money
Money DefinedThe Functions of Money

Medium of Exchange

  • Means of exchanging goods and services without barter.
  • Any item sellers generally accept and buyers generally use to pay for goods and services.

Unit of Account

  • Standard unit in which prices can be stated and the value of goods and services can be compared.

Store of Value

  • An asset set aside for future use.
money defined money supply components
Money DefinedMoney Supply Components

Currency

  • Coins = “token money”
    • Intrinsic value of metal in coin must be less than face value of coin.
  • Paper = “folding money”
    • Federal Reserve Notes, issued by Federal Reserve system.

Checkable Deposits

  • “checkbook money”
    • Checking account balances are easily converted into currency on demand, so checks drawn on these accounts are considered equivalent to currency.
money defined money supply components1
Money DefinedMoney Supply Components

Other liquid savings deposits = “Near-monies” (not medium of exchange, but easily converted)

  • Savings accounts
  • Money market deposits
    • Interest-bearing savings, minimum balance and time restrictions
  • Time deposits
    • Certificates of deposits (CD’s), earns interest, can’t be withdrawn before time expires without penalty
  • Money market mutual funds held by individuals
    • Interest-bearing pooled funds offered by investment firms.
money defined measuring the money supply
Money DefinedMeasuring the Money Supply

NOTE: Money supply measures do NOT include money in the banks, US Treasury, Federal Reserve or other financial institutions. This would result in double-counting. We only count money held by the public.

  • M1 Money Supply = Currency + Checkable deposits
  • M2 Money Supply = M1 + near monies listed on previous slide
money supply february 2006
Money Supply February 2006

M1

M2

+

Currency

54%

M1

+

Checkable Deposits

20%

46%

+

Small Time Deposits

15%

Money Market Mutual

Funds Held By Individuals

(MMMF)

11%

+

Savings Deposits

Including Money Market

Deposit Accounts (MMDA)

54%

+

Totals

$1,375

Billion

$6,758

Billion

money supply
Money Supply
  • Are Credit Cards Money? NO.

Credit cards are a means of postponing payment. The checking account balance used to pay the credit card bill is money. The credit card is not.

  • What “Backs” the Money Supply?

Money supply is backed (guaranteed) by government’s ability to keep the value of money relatively stable.

money supply money as debt
Money SupplyMoney as Debt
  • Major components of the money supply are debts (promises to pay).
  • Paper currency and checkable deposits have no intrinsic value
    • Paper money cannot be redeemed for gold or other tangible asset, only for other paper money.
  • Checkable deposits are only redeemable for paper money.
  • Monetary authorities attempt to maintain amount of money needed for volume of business activity necessary for full employment.
money supply value of money
Money SupplyValue of Money
  • Acceptability
    • Currency is money because people accept it in exchange for goods and services.
  • Legal Tender
    • “This note is legal tender for all debts public and private.”
    • Currency is legal means of payment of debt (but firms are NOT legally required to take cash instead of other forms of payment).
money supply value of money1
Money SupplyValue of Money

Relative Scarcity

  • Value of money depends on supply and demand of money.
    • Value is derived from its scarcity, just like everything else.
  • With relatively constant demand, value is determined by supply.
  • So what happens to value of money when money supply increases?
  • What will then happen to prices when money supply increases?
money supply money and prices
Money SupplyMoney and Prices
  • Purchasing power = amount of goods and services a unit of money will buy, which varies inversely with price level.
  • Purchasing Power of the Dollar:

$V = 1/(Price index/100)

Examples:

    • If CPI = 100, purchasing power of dollar = 1/1.00 = 1
    • If CPI increases to 135, purchasing power of dollar falls to 1/1.35 = 0.74 (by what percentage does purchasing power fall for this 35% increase in price?)
federal reserve system
Federal Reserve System

The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States

  • aka “the Fed,” central bank of the US
  • Established with the Federal Reserve Act of 1913
  • Government’s bank
  • Bank’s bank
  • Monetary authority

of the US

federal reserve system the federal reserve bank of the united states
Federal Reserve SystemThe Federal Reserve Bank of the United States
  • Central authority of US money and banking system is Fed’s Board of Governors.
  • Seven members, appointed by president, confirmed by senate (like cabinet members and supreme court justices).
  • Serve 14 year terms, providing continuity, experience, and independence from political pressures.
  • One member selected by president to be chairperson (previous chair was Alan Greenspan, served over 18 years. Who is the current chair? The guy in the picture?).
federal reserve system the federal reserve bank of the united states1
Federal Reserve SystemThe Federal Reserve Bank of the United States
  • Twelve district banks serve collectively ascentral bank.
  • Quasi-public banks, blending private ownership and public control.
    • Each district bank is owned by private banks in the district.
    • Federally chartered banks are required to buy stock in the Fed bank in their district.
federal reserve system the federal reserve bank of the united states2
Federal Reserve SystemThe Federal Reserve Bank of the United States
  • Twelve district banks serve collectively ascentral bank.
    • Policies are established and coordinated by Board of Governors, a government body.
  • The Fed and its district banks are not profit motivated like private banks.
    • Their goal is overall economic stability.
    • If the Fed has an operating profit, it transfers the profit to the US Treasury.
federal reserve system the federal reserve bank of the united states3
Federal Reserve SystemThe Federal Reserve Bank of the United States
  • Twelve district banks serve collectively asbank’s bank.
    • They perform the same functions for banks as banks provide to consumers.
    • Banks have accounts at their district bank and they can borrow from that banks.
    • Fed banks are “lender of last resort” for local banks, ensuring they have liquidity to serve our needs (e.g., after 9/11 attacks, when hurricanes hit . . .)
    • District banks also issue currency to private member banks (district number printed on each bill).
federal reserve system the federal reserve bank of the united states4
Federal Reserve SystemThe Federal Reserve Bank of the United States
  • Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) aids Board of Governors in conducting monetary policy.
  • FOMC is made up of 12 members, including all 7 of Board of Governors, president of NY district bank, and 4 other presidents who rotate on 1-year terms.
  • FOMC meets every six weeks to determine direction of monetary policy, conduction open market operations (buy and sell bonds) to control money supply and influence interest rates (more on this later).
framework of the federal reserve system and the relationship to the public
Framework of the Federal Reserve System and the Relationship to the Public

Board of Governors

Federal Open Market Committee

12 Federal Reserve Banks

Commercial Banks

Thrift Institutions

(Savings and Loan Associations,

Mutual Savings Banks,

Credit Unions)

The Public

(Households and

Businesses)

federal reserve system fed functions and the money supply
Federal Reserve SystemFed Functions and the Money Supply

Federal Reserve Independence

  • Fed is an independent agency of government to protect it from political pressure so it can effectively control money supply and maintain price stability.
  • Political pressure would likely result in inflationary pressure, low interest rates, even when economy needs higher rates.
  • Research shows that nations with independent central banks have lower rates of inflation than countries that don’t.
key terms
Key Terms
  • Medium of exchange
  • Unit of account
  • Store of value
  • M1
  • Token money
  • Federal Reserve notes
  • Checkable deposits
  • Commercial banks
  • Near-monies
  • M2
  • Savings account
  • Time deposits
  • Legal tender
  • Federal Reserve System
  • Board of Governors
  • Federal Reserve Banks
  • Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)
money and banking wrap up
Money and BankingWrap-Up

Money

The Fed

12 District Banks

Bank's Bank

3 Functions of Money

Value of Money

Board of Governors

Politically Independent

Measures of Money Supply

Money and Prices

FOMC