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Basic MNT Goals. Meet basic nutritional requirements Preserve lean body mass Restore respiratory muscle mass and strength Maintain fluid balance Improve resistance to infection

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basic mnt goals
Basic MNT Goals
  • Meet basic nutritional requirements
  • Preserve lean body mass
  • Restore respiratory muscle mass and strength
  • Maintain fluid balance
  • Improve resistance to infection
  • Facilitate weaning from oxygen support and mechanical ventilation by providing energy substrates without exceeding the capacity of the respiratory system to clear CO2

Mahan KL, Escott-Stump S, Raymond JL. Krause’s Food and the Nutrition Care Process. 13th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Inc; 2012.

mnt cont
MNT cont.
  • Negative Nitrogen balance
    • Protein (1.5-2 g/kg)
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation programs
    • Small portions
    • Favorite foods
  • Inadequate oxygen
    • Anorexia
    • Early satiety
    • Malaise
    • Bloating
    • Constipation
    • Diarrhea

Mahan KL, Escott-Stump S, Raymond JL. Krause’s Food and the Nutrition Care Process. 13th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Inc; 2012.

obesity and underfeeding
Obesity and Underfeeding
  • Underfeeding delays ventilator weaning
  • Factors associated with obesity:
    • Chest physiology
      • Reduced functional reserve capacities
      • Smaller lung volumes
      • Hypercapnea
    • Glucose resistance
    • Mobilization of fat stores

Turner KL, Moor FA, Martindale R. Nutrition support for the acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome patine: A review. NutrClinPract. 2011; 26(1):14-25.

obesity and underfeeding1
Obesity and Underfeeding
  • Protein provision
    • Promotes endogenous fat oxidation
    • Shifts from utilization of muscle stores
  • Caloric restriction
    • Improves glycemic control
    • Reduces hypercapnea and fluid retention
    • Endorse hypocaloric feeding for obese patient with goals of:
      • 60-70% of target or
      • 11-14 kcal/g with 2.0-2.5 g/kg of protein
hypercapnea and overfeeding
Hypercapnea and Overfeeding
  • Limit tidal volumes to prevent further inflammation and barotrauma
  • Limit CO2 production
  • Can lead to:
    • Increased lipogenesis
    • Increased glucose levels
    • Hepatic dysfunction
    • Inability to wean from the ventilator

Turner KL, Moor FA, Martindale R. Nutrition support for the acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome patine: A review. NutrClinPract. 2011; 26(1):14-25.

lipids in ards
Lipids in ARDS
  • Anti-inflammatory lipid substrates
  • Omega-3 fatty acids
  • Fish oils (DHA and EPA)
  • Resolvins
  • Neuroprotectin

Turner KL, Moor FA, Martindale R. Nutrition support for the acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome patine: A review. NutrClinPract. 2011; 26(1):14-25.

slide7
EN
  • Always given when gut is functional
  • Early EN ( within 24-48 hours of arrival)
  • Feed directly into small bowel
  • Supplementation with vitamins A, C, E
  • Phosphate

Turner KL, Moor FA, Martindale R. Nutrition support for the acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome patine: A review. NutrClinPract. 2011; 26(1):14-25.

slide8
PN
  • Shock
  • Nonfunctional gut
  • Peritonitis
  • A marker for severity of disease
pulmonary inflammation

Clinical catastrophe

All further deteriorating a patients condition

Pulmonary Inflammation

Increase in neutrophil recruitment

Impaired gas exchanged and poor oxygenation

Pulmonary inflammation with edema and vasoconstriction

Proinflammatory eicosanoids and free radicals produced

Oxepa: Advanced technology, advanced therapy. Therapeutic Nutrition for modulating inflammation in sepsis, ARDS, and ALI. Abbott Laboratories, Inc. 2007.

how oxepa works
How Oxepa Works

Borage OilGLA

Arachidonic Acid

Fish Oil

EPA

DGLA

Replacing amino acids with GLA results in…

Replacing Amino Acids with EPA results in…

Cycloxygenase

Lipooxygenase

Eicosanoids that are less inflammatory (LTB3 , TXA3 PGE5)

Results in decreased proinflammatory eicosanoids (LTB4, TXA2, PGE2)

PGE1 and eicosanoids that are less inflammatory

Oxepa: Advanced technology, advanced therapy. Therapeutic Nutrition for modulating inflammation in sepsis, ARDS, and ALI. Abbott Laboratories, Inc. 2007.

benefits of oxepa
Benefits of Oxepa
  • Decreases pulmonary inflammation and edema
  • Facilitates pulmonary vasodilation
  • Improves oxygenation
  • Decreases time on ventilator
  • Reduces new organ failures
  • Decreases ICU length of stay
  • Lowers mortality rates
  • Less expensive

Oxepa: Advanced technology, advanced therapy. Therapeutic Nutrition for modulating inflammation in sepsis, ARDS, and ALI. Abbott Laboratories, Inc. 2007.

cost of care
Cost of Care

Oxepa: Advanced technology, advanced therapy. Therapeutic Nutrition for modulating inflammation in sepsis, ARDS, and ALI. Abbott Laboratories, Inc. 2007.