ad hominem n.
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Ad-Hominem. Attacking the individual that makes the statement rather than the argument. Examples:. To the court: “You cannot accept the testimony of this person, he is a convicted felon” A makes claim X There is something wrong about A Therefore X is wrong. Appeal to probability.

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ad hominem

Ad-Hominem

Attacking the individual that makes the statement rather than the argument

examples
Examples:
  • To the court: “You cannot accept the testimony of this person, he is a convicted felon”
    • A makes claim X

There is something wrong about A

Therefore X is wrong

appeal to probability

Appeal to probability

Believing that something is inevitable just because it is probable

examples1
Examples:
  • “There are two many viruses on the internet. Therefore if you log in without an antivirus, you will definitely get a virus”
    • A is possible

Therefore…

A is inevitable

argument from ignorance argumentum ad ignorantiam

Argument from ignorance(argumentum ad ignorantiam)

Something is true because it has not be proven false

examples2
Examples:
  • “You cannot prove that there are no Martians living in caves on planet Mars, therefore it is OK for me to believe there are”
    • There is no evidence for A

Therefore A is false

There is no evidence against A

Therefore A is true

argument to moderation

Argument to moderation

The middle ground must be correct

examples3
Examples:
  • “Some say vaccines are bad for babies but the WHO says they are good, so the truth must be somewhere in the middle”
    • A says X

B says Y

Then Z which is in the middle of X and Y must be correct

circular reasoning

Circular reasoning

Trying to prove a point by repeating the same argument in different forms

examples4
Examples:
  • “Andreas Hoca is the best professor, because no one at Zirve University is as good as him”
    • A is good

Because A is nice, excellent, magnificent

Therefore A is good

straw man

Straw man

Exaggerating opponents argument in order to make it easier to attack

examples5
Examples:
  • “The PM said they will not fund the submarines program. I totally disagree, I don’t see why he wants to leave the country defenseless like that”
    • A says X

B present X as Y

B attacks Y

hasty generalization

Hasty Generalization

Reach conclusions on a population based on a very limited sample

examples6
Examples:
  • “1 is a square number, 3, 5, 7 are prime, 9 is square, 11 is prime. Therefore all odd numbers are either squares or primes”
    • X% of A are B

Therefore all A are B

cherry picking

Cherry picking

Carefully select evidence that prove our argument and dismiss the ones that don’t

examples7
Examples:
  • “You should avoid garlic cause garlic consumption decreases your blood pressure, and you will feel exhausted”
    • X, Y, and Z prove A

Q,R, and S disprove A

We only use X, Y, and Z

band wagon

Band wagon

Popular ideas are also correct

examples8
Examples:
  • “You should not talk to your shell phone all the time. It will hurt your brain…everyone knows that!”
    • A, B, C….Z believe X is correct

Therefore X is correct

slippery slope

Slippery slope

The idea that one thing will inevitably lead to another

examples9
Examples:
  • “If we allow gay marriage, next thing you will know, people will ask for polygamy”
    • If A happens

Then be will happen

argument from authority

Argument from authority

Believing something is true because someone with authority tells it

examples10
Examples:
  • “Saddam must have WMD, the president would never lie to us about it”
    • A says B is correct

A has authority

B must be correct

false dilemma

False dilemma

Putting an argument in a “black or white” term

examples11
Examples:
  • “I thought you are a good student, but I saw you out having fun the night before the finals”
    • Either A or B are correct