1 / 24

# Ad-Hominem - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Ad-Hominem. Attacking the individual that makes the statement rather than the argument. Examples:. To the court: “You cannot accept the testimony of this person, he is a convicted felon” A makes claim X There is something wrong about A Therefore X is wrong. Appeal to probability.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Attacking the individual that makes the statement rather than the argument

Examples:
• To the court: “You cannot accept the testimony of this person, he is a convicted felon”
• A makes claim X

There is something wrong about A

Therefore X is wrong

### Appeal to probability

Believing that something is inevitable just because it is probable

Examples:
• “There are two many viruses on the internet. Therefore if you log in without an antivirus, you will definitely get a virus”
• A is possible

Therefore…

A is inevitable

### Argument from ignorance(argumentum ad ignorantiam)

Something is true because it has not be proven false

Examples:
• “You cannot prove that there are no Martians living in caves on planet Mars, therefore it is OK for me to believe there are”
• There is no evidence for A

Therefore A is false

There is no evidence against A

Therefore A is true

### Argument to moderation

The middle ground must be correct

Examples:
• “Some say vaccines are bad for babies but the WHO says they are good, so the truth must be somewhere in the middle”
• A says X

B says Y

Then Z which is in the middle of X and Y must be correct

### Circular reasoning

Trying to prove a point by repeating the same argument in different forms

Examples:
• “Andreas Hoca is the best professor, because no one at Zirve University is as good as him”
• A is good

Because A is nice, excellent, magnificent

Therefore A is good

### Straw man

Exaggerating opponents argument in order to make it easier to attack

Examples:
• “The PM said they will not fund the submarines program. I totally disagree, I don’t see why he wants to leave the country defenseless like that”
• A says X

B present X as Y

B attacks Y

### Hasty Generalization

Reach conclusions on a population based on a very limited sample

Examples:
• “1 is a square number, 3, 5, 7 are prime, 9 is square, 11 is prime. Therefore all odd numbers are either squares or primes”
• X% of A are B

Therefore all A are B

### Cherry picking

Carefully select evidence that prove our argument and dismiss the ones that don’t

Examples:
• “You should avoid garlic cause garlic consumption decreases your blood pressure, and you will feel exhausted”
• X, Y, and Z prove A

Q,R, and S disprove A

We only use X, Y, and Z

### Band wagon

Popular ideas are also correct

Examples:
• “You should not talk to your shell phone all the time. It will hurt your brain…everyone knows that!”
• A, B, C….Z believe X is correct

Therefore X is correct

### Slippery slope

The idea that one thing will inevitably lead to another

Examples:
• “If we allow gay marriage, next thing you will know, people will ask for polygamy”
• If A happens

Then be will happen

### Argument from authority

Believing something is true because someone with authority tells it

Examples:
• “Saddam must have WMD, the president would never lie to us about it”
• A says B is correct

A has authority

B must be correct

### False dilemma

Putting an argument in a “black or white” term

Examples:
• “I thought you are a good student, but I saw you out having fun the night before the finals”
• Either A or B are correct