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Rise of New Leaders and Ideas in Europe during the 1930s

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Rise of New Leaders and Ideas in Europe during the 1930s. Democracy. Rule by the people Civil Rights Representative democracy Capitalism – private business, no government ownership, free market Rule of Law. Canada and USA, 1930s. Mired in a Depression High Unemployment Poverty Hunger

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Rise of New Leaders

and Ideas in Europe during the 1930s

  • Rule by the people
  • Civil Rights
  • Representative democracy
  • Capitalism – private business, no government ownership, free market
  • Rule of Law
canada and usa 1930s
Canada and USA, 1930s
  • Mired in a Depression
  • High Unemployment
  • Poverty
  • Hunger

Was capitalism failing?! Was democracy in Danger?!

in other parts of the world
in other parts of the world…


Democracy was kept safe here . . .



Who Would You Vote For?

Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, have self-interested policies and unfortunately suffer from ailing health.

Contestant #2I have a drinking habit and a defiant tongue or attitude

Contestant #3I am a decorated war hero, do not drink and want to create a stable economy


Who Did You Vote For?

Contestant #3

Contestant #2

Contestant #1


Black Tuesday 1929- stock market crashes

Treaty of Versailles

Great Depressionduring 1930s


Increasing influence of new political parties that emphasize state control-For example: Communism, Nazism, Fascism

Total Controlof State by aDictator



  • What is it?
  • Describe its characteristics…


  • Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state(political, military, economy, social, cultural)
  • Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms)
  • Strict controls and laws
  • Military state (secret police, army, military)
  • Censorship (opposing literature and ideas)
  • Propaganda (media – radio, newspapers, posters)
  • One leader (dictator); charismatic
  • Total conformity of people to ideas and leader
  • Terror and Fear


*These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism, are completely different theories that are bitterly opposed; however they exhibit the same behaviour



  • I am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union from 1922-1953.
  • What is Communism?
  • based on theory by Karl Marx
  • revolutionary idea of a political, economic and social system that creates a “classless society”
  • state ownership and control of the means of production (no private ownership)
  • Soviet Communism or “Stalinism”, was more of a totalitarian and military state combined with elements of communism


  • I am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of Italy from 1922 to 1943.
  • What is Fascism?
  • intense nationalism and elitism
  • totalitarian control
  • interests of the state more important than individual rights
  • maintain class system and private ownership

Interesting Fact: Fascism name was derived from the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax



  • I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945.
  • What is Nazism?
  • extremely fascist , nationalistic and totalitarian
  • based on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Party
  • belief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race”
  • belief that all Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in Europe
  • Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germany’s problems on them


  • Militarism
  • War is main policy of government
  • Use of force to reach goals
  • Strong Army

Rising Sun Japanese Imperial Flag

Emperor Hirohito


Hideki Tojo

  • Preached virtues of territorial expansion
  • Needed to conquer – gain more land
  • Japan poor in natural resources
  • Claimed Japan’s destiny was to drive out the western colonial powers and rule all of Asia
  • Censored media and demanded totalobedience


  • Spanish Civil War, 1936
  • Francisco Franco vs. Republic Government
  • Spain the place to stop the rise of Fascism?
  • Democracies looked the other way, remained neutral (U.S., Britain, France)
  • Hitler aided Franco, tested out strategies/weapons for future conflicts in his quest to enlarge Germany


Francisco Franco


Nazi Military State

  • GESTAPO: the Secret State Police
  • SS (Schutzstaffel): Defense Corps “black shirts”, an elite guard unit formed out of the SA
  • SA (Sturmabteilung): Stormtroopers "brown-shirts" early private Nazi army that protected leaders and opposed rival political parties
  • Lebensraum (living space): concept that emphasized need for territorial expansion of Germany into east
  • Wehrmacht:German army
  • HJ (Hitler Jugend): Hitler Youth
  • Einstazgruppen: Nazi Death Squad; mobile killing units
  • Volk:all inclusive concept of nation, people and race, implying the superiority of German culture and race; led to policy of Volksgemeinschaft (idea of a harmonized racial Nazi community in government policies and programs)

“The Eternal Jew”Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violenceagainst the Jewish community.

This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew.

policy of appeasement
Policy of Appeasement


  • willingness to surrender to an aggressors’ demands to avoid war

How was it used prior to World War II?

  • Acceptance that Hitler could not be stopped and needed to be negotiated with (even at the expense of the smaller independent countries)
  • Accepted because of sympathy and guilt felt by Britain and USA of unjust Treaty of Versailles


  • Blindness to true nature of Hitler’s agenda program for Eastern Europe
  • Irony= policy used to avoid war but empowered Hitler to continue his aggressive campaign . The only way to stop Hitler was to declare war.


How did World War II begin?

How did appeasement contribute to World War II?

  • Was the Treaty of Versailles truly the cause of World War II? Or appeasement?
  • What do we have to remember about hindsight when examining history?
  • Could Hitler have been ‘stopped’ at any time prior to 1939?
  • What was Canada’s view of appeasement and another potential war? What was “isolationism” ?