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Aerospace Technology 1. Text Chapter 1 – Introduction to Air Power. Learning Outcomes - Describe the relationship between Bernoulli’s Principle and Newton’s Laws of Motion and how they were used to develop a machine that could fly.

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aerospace technology 1

Aerospace Technology 1

Text Chapter 1 – Introduction to Air Power


Learning Outcomes

- Describe the relationship between Bernoulli’s Principle and Newton’s Laws of Motion and how they were used to develop a machine that could fly.

- Describe the coefficient of lift and the parameters involved.

- Identify the parts of an airplane and an airfoil.

- Describe the four forces affecting an airplane in flight.

- Define the three axes, movement around those axes, and the control surfaces that create the motion.


1 Introduction to Air Power

  • Desire to fly dates back 4000 years - China
    • Invented kite 100 BC, Gun Powder 900 AD, Rockets 1100 AD
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Artist, Architect, Man of Science
    • First scientific experiments in field of aviation
    • 160 pages of descriptions & sketches of flying machines
    • 1st design of parachute and helicopter
    • Wrote about principles of CG, CP, Streamlining
  • Lighter-than-air: Balloons
    • 1783 Montgolfier brothers first balloon experiment with sheep, rooster, duck
    • Nov 21, 1783 - Pilatre de Rozier & Marquis d’Arlandes were first humans to fly lighter-than-air. Flight lasted 25 minutes and 5 miles.
    • First balloon flight in US: Jan 9, 1793 in Philadelphia
    • 1st US military use in Civil War-observation, aerial reporting

1 Introduction to Air Power

  • Dirigible: Lighter-than-air craft that can be propelled and steered
    • Paul Haenlein - 1st dirigible powered by an internal combustion engine
    • Ferdinand von Zeppelin - built and flew the world’s first rigid dirigible LZ-1.
  • Wright Brothers
    • First to achieve controlled, sustained, powered heavier than air flight.
    • Learned from previous pioneers an observing birds in flight
    • Utilized “wing-warping technique” for control
    • Utilized gas powered engine; built gliders
    • December 17, 1903-1st powered flt-120’ 12 seconds at Kitty Hawk, N.C.
    • Completed 3 flights that day, longest 852 feet, 59 seconds.

Daniel Bernoulli

Bernoulli found that the pressure of a fluid, like air, drops when it is accelerated. An example of this can be shown when air passes through a tube that has a restriction.

This tube, known as a venturi tube, causes the air to accelerate when it passes through the middle. The pressure at the restriction drops. Notice the two gauges — the velocity

gauge shows an increase and the pressure gauge shows a decrease. This is the secret of lift for flight that eluded mankind for centuries.


Sir Isaac Newton

Newton’s Three Laws

An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by an unbalanced, outside force.

2. A force acting upon a body causes it to accelerate in the direction of the force. Acceleration is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the body being accelerated.

3. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Newton’s Third Law is used to explain how an aircraft is lifted against the force of gravity.