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THE EXCHANGE OF IDEAS. Advances in the sciences Machiavelli, Luther and changing leadership roles The Protestant Reformation The arrival and impact of the printing press. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD.

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the exchange of ideas

THE EXCHANGE OF IDEAS

Advances in the sciences

Machiavelli, Luther and changing leadership roles

The Protestant Reformation

The arrival and impact of the printing press

the scientific method
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  • The process of making observations, experimenting, and drawing conclusions based on evidence is known as the scientific method
  • The use of the scientific method led to discoveries in many areas of science during the Renaissance
  • There were key advances in astronomy, medicine and mathematics
astronomy http www youtube com watch v htjncj4k2qa feature related
ASTRONOMY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=htJNcj4K2QA&feature=related
  • For thousand of years most people believed the Sun went around the Earth
  • Ptolemy, introduced the idea of the universe
  • It was followed by three key advances
    • Copernicus said the Earth is a planet that moved around a stationary Sun http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oDKdi7aRGls
    • Kepler concluded that the planets travelled in elliptical orbits, not perfect circles
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRT3m2Wzyh4&safe=active
    • Galileo built telescopes which observed sun spots, craters on the moon, and Jupiter’s moons
medicine
MEDICINE
  • Doctors of the day lacked accurate knowledge about anatomy
  • Remedies of the day were often based on astrology, superstition, bloodletting, and applying leeches were common
  • Andreas Vesalius dissected bodies in his lecture hall while students observed
  • Da Vinci also added detailed anatomy drawings based on dissection
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TWMPlowepGE
mathematics
MATHEMATICS
  • Earlier civilizations, contributed to understanding through concepts like zero from India and the decimal system by the Muslims
  • New focus on geometry by Euclid and algebra by al-Khwarizmi
  • Math was key in astronomy, economics, mathematical proofs
  • Brunelleschi rediscovered the mathematical theory of perspective
political and religious leadership
POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS LEADERSHIP
  • Isabella D’Estemarried the Duke of Mantau when she was 16
  • Their court was known as a leader in learning, music and the visual arts
  • She became known as “the first lady of the world”
  • When her husband was away, Isabella ruled the city state in his absence
  • When her husband died she helped her young son to rule Mantua
niccolo machiavelli
NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI
  • Observed people and governments as a civil servant
  • He wrote The Prince in which he explained his conclusions about the best way to govern
  • His conclusions remain controversial today
    • It is a good general rule about men that they are ungrateful, fickle, liars and deceivers, fearful of danger and greedy for gain
    • A newly installed leader often cannot observe the qualities that make men good and it is often necessary in order to preserve the state to act contrary to faith, contrary to mercy, contrary to humanness, contrary to religion
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=44DNBRL4nR8
niccolo machiavelli1
NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI
  • Machiavelli described the state as a creation of human beings
  • He felt it was a secular institution
    • The only thing that mattered was the effective running of the state. The leader could do anything as long as it was good for the state.
  • When it came to ideas of leadership, Machiavelli did not think the concepts of right and wrong were important
changing leadership in the church
CHANGING LEADERSHIP IN THE CHURCH
  • During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the Catholic Church was the most powerful institution in Europe
  • Girolamo Savonarola was a monk who believed in the Dominican order
  • He dedicated his life to fighting against the corruption he saw in the church
  • He directly accused Pope Alexander VI of corruption
  • In 1497 he organized the Bonfire of the Vanities
  • People burned their wigs, make up, fancy clothing, art and books because these items diverted attention way from God
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MUdLHr4H-nQ
changing leadership in the church1
CHANGING LEADERSHIP IN THE CHURCH
  • Eventually due to his criticisms Savonarola was excommunicated
  • That means he was officially excluded from the Church
  • In 1499, he was tried for heresy, found guilty and executed
martin luther
MARTIN LUTHER
  • Martin Luther, was a German monk
  • He came to the conclusion that the Bible, rather than the Church, should guide Christian life
  • 0ne of the things Luther was most critical of was the selling of indulgences
  • These were certificates that reduced the amount of time people would be punished after they died
  • In 1517, Luther published his Ninety-Five Theses on the outside of a church door in Wittenberg
martin luther1
MARTIN LUTHER
  • Pope Leo X issued an official order condemning Luther and banning his works
  • In 1521, Luther was called before the Imperial Diet in the city of Worms
  • The pope excommunicated Luther, and emperor Charles V declared that Luther was on outlaw who could be killed
  • Luther was forced into hiding
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j89_BAh2Q3M
the protestant reformation
THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION
  • Luther also had made a Protestant translation of the Bible, which reached large numbers of Germans
  • A new church was started the Lutheran Church and it soon spread across Europe
  • People who joined this new movement were referred to as Protestants and this time became known as the Protestant Reformation
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gi5qR7tflG0&safe=active
the catholic church counter revolution
THE CATHOLIC CHURCH COUNTER REVOLUTION
  • Pope Paul III called a series of meeting known as the Council of Trent for the Church to examine its policies
  • New religious orders were established to focus on converting people to Catholicism
  • One of these new orders was called the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits
  • The European Jesuits sent into North America were known as the Black Robes
the printing press
THE PRINTING PRESS
  • In 1450 Johann Gutenberg developed the moveable printing press
  • It allowed books to be produced quickly and cheaply
  • It could produce thousands of books in the time it used to take to make a single copy
  • They could also be printed on paper which was much cheaper the parchment
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eMbvT3rwI3M
impact of the printing press in the renaissance
IMPACT OF THE PRINTING PRESS IN THE RENAISSANCE
  • By 1500, there were more than 6 million books in print
    • Now that books were cheaper, middle class people began to read, discuss and eventually write books
    • Instead on only books in Latin, more books were produced in the vernacular
    • Thinkers like Erasmus began to make money from the books they wrote
the impact of the internet on canada today
THE IMPACT OF THE INTERNET ON CANADA TODAY
  • Your generation is the first to grow up using the Internet since birth, digital natives
  • Here’s a look at how this technological advance has impacted Canada
    • 90% of teenagers use the internet
    • 45% prefer instant messaging as a means of communication
    • Francophones are less likely to use the internet than Anglophones
    • Rural citizens use the internet less the urban citizens
    • Canadian teens use the internet to
      • Access information 71%
      • Communicate electronically 60%
      • Play games 48%
      • Learn school related material 32%