The Eukaryotic Cell Chapter 3 Section 2 Notes
Eukaryotic Cells • All eukaryotic cells have linear DNA, a nucleus, and membrane-bound organelles • All eukaryotic cells have the following organelles in common: • Cell membrane Only plant cells and algae have • Cytoskeleton 1. cell walls • Ribosomes 2. chloroplasts • Endoplasmic reticulum • Mitochondria Fungi also have cell walls • Golgi complexes • Lysosomes • vacuoles
Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell • Plant cells, algae and Fungi have rigid cellwalls • Outermost structure to give the cell support The cells walls of this onion skin can easily be seen.
Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell • CYTOSKELETON • Made of protein fibers • Helps retain shape of cell
Nucleus • Contains cell’s DNA • Double Membrane • Has nucleolus that stores materials to make proteins • Messages of how to make proteins are sent out of nucleus to ribosomes
Ribosomes • Smallest of the organelles • Some are free-floating and some are not • Make proteins • All cells need proteins to live • Proteins are made from 20 amino acids (organic compounds) Ribosomes attached to E.R.
Endoplasmic Reticulum • Where chemical reactions occur • Folded membranes • Production, processing, and transportations of proteins
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Usually located near the nucleus Where most proteins are made Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Made lipids and breaks down toxins that could damage cell Smooth and Rough ER
Mitochondria • Maine power source • Sugar is broken down to produce energy • Have their own DNA and can divide within cell
In plants and algae Where photosynthesis (making of own food) takes place Plants are green because of pigment called chlorophyll in chloroplasts Chlorophyll traps sunlight to aid in photosynthesis Chloroplast
Golgi Complexes • Packages and distributes proteins • Proteins and lipids are transported from ER here where they are modified to do different jobs • Final products are enclosed in small bubble called vesicles • Then the vesicle moves in or out of the cell with the material
Lysosomes • Vesicles responsible for digestion • They destroy worn-out cells, damaged cells, gets rid of waste, and protects the cell from foreign invaders Lysosome in the process of destroying an old mitochondria organelle.
Vacuoles • In plant and animal cells • Stores water and other materials