Structure of Seminar. Part 1 - Darren Smith Contextualisation of issues and trends - PBSA Part 2 - Jonathan Hale The Loughborough Case Study. Purpose-built student accommodation (PBSA): ‘saviour’ and/or ‘sinner’? Dr Darren P. Smith Reader in Human Geography University of Brighton, UK
Structure of Seminar • Part 1 - Darren Smith • Contextualisation of issues and trends - PBSA • Part 2 - Jonathan Hale • The Loughborough Case Study
Purpose-built student accommodation (PBSA): ‘saviour’ and/or ‘sinner’? Dr Darren P. Smith Reader in Human Geography University of Brighton, UK London 30th June 2008
Context: the breakdown of ‘town and gown’relations? • Dramatic rise of student populations (< mid-90s) • No urban policy to accommodate rising numbers of students • Students accommodated in unregulated / unplanned ways by private sector (HMO) • Results = Studentification • ‘[Studentification is] the social and environmental changes caused by very large numbers of students living in particular areas of a town or city’ (Macmillan English Dictionary, 2003). • Studentification: A Guide To Opportunities, Challenges and Practices • Commissioned / published by: UniversitiesUK/SCOP • Funded by: DfES & ODPM, LGA • Launched: UUK conference January 2006 • Parliamentary launch: 27th June 2006
The response: addressing the ‘challenges' • The dispersal of students away from existing over-concentrations & planning (Leeds, Loughborough, Nottingham) • Halting the intensity of concentrations of students • The proliferation of purpose-built student accommodation by the private sector (Unite, Opal) • The refurbishment / upgrade of university-maintained / -managed student accommodation (UPP)
The scale of PBSA? • 9% of students accommodated in PBSA (King Sturge, 2008) • 120,000 students in PBSA (Mark Allan, Unite, 2008) • 40,000 students reside in Unite PBSA • UPP - Refurbishment of University accommodation • Nottingham (2009/10) • Students living in Nottingham (33,967) • PBSA (22,716) • HMO (11,251)
The ‘second-wave’ of studentification?
Purpose-built student accommodation The solution to: • enhance the quality and management of student accommodation • regulate the behaviour of some (anti-social) students • solve refuse collection issues, etc • (re)turn student areas to family housing • control student leisure & recreation spaces (i.e. bars) • reduce use of private vehicles and on-street parking • circulate information leaflets and enhance communication with students about behaviour, etc • Increase electoral voting, etc...
A more critical perspective of PBSA? • Is PBSA addressing the challenges or displacing the challenges of studentification? • Are the intentional outcomes being realised? • What are the unintentional consequences of student accommodation?
A changing context of opportunities • A changing private rented / HMO market • Credit crunch (40% reduction in access to mortgages) • Pressures on student HMO for other social groups seeking to rent? (right-to-rent) • Housing Act (licensing) • Use Classes Order? • Areas of Housing Mix (AoHm) • HMO Action Zones (Nottingham) • Student accommodation included in Local Housing Strategies/LDF • Changing preferences of students
The unintentional effects of PBSA • Studentification continues to unfold (students do not want PBSA?) • Over-supply=destudentification (which social groups replace the students) • Gentrification of student areas
The first-wave persists and is unfolding • An international phenomena • Town and Gown Association of Ontario (TGAO) • Carlton Residents Group, Melbourne
Destudentification Definition (?) – ‘the decline of a student area due to the out-migration of student landlords and students’ - ‘We want the student’s back!’ (e.g. Coventry, Birmingham, Brighton) - ‘We don’t want the asylum seekers or the migrant workers’
Recognising the opportunities • Engagement with the politics of studentification • APPG for Balanced and Sustainable Communities • Councillors Campaign for Balanced Communites • NUS • National HMO Lobby
PBSA - ‘Getting it right’ • More effectively ‘protect’ and ‘nurture’ balanced communities = student populations • The mission for providers of student accommodation: • Woven into economic regeneration schemes • Matches the preferences of students • Provides affordable rents and high-quality student accommodation • Integrated into established communities in sensitive ways • Does not ‘ghettoise’ students in gated-communities • Managed in effective ways (refuse, car parking, noise nuisance, volunteering, active citizens, green transport) • Is this happening?
Student accommodation to address deeper challenges? • Childless cities and towns (Peter Hall, 2007) • Lack of family or affordable housing (housing crisis) • Increasing segregation of society • Proliferation of gated communities • ‘Ghettoisation’ of social groups • Breakdown of community cohesion • Decreasing levels of social capital • Deterioration of urban environment • Homogenisation of built environment with ‘private sector footprint’