slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Lecture 014 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Lecture 014

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 61

Lecture 014 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 123 Views
  • Uploaded on

Lecture 014. Kingdoms Monera & Protista. Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista. eukaryotic. Monera (Eubacteria & Archaebacteria). prokaryotic. Kingdoms. Kingdom Monera. Species number low (~17, 000) Changing as we learn more Two phyla (divisions) Eubacteria (Bacteria & Cyanobacteria)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Lecture 014' - kyra-boone


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Lecture 014

Kingdoms Monera& Protista

slide2

Plantae Fungi Animalia

Protista

eukaryotic

Monera

(Eubacteria & Archaebacteria)

prokaryotic

Kingdoms

slide3

Kingdom Monera

  • Species number low (~17, 000)
  • Changing as we learn more
  • Two phyla (divisions)
    • Eubacteria (Bacteria & Cyanobacteria)
    • Archaebacteria
slide5

Evolutionary Pattern

Molecular studies are giving us more information

Kingdom Protista

Cyanobacteria

Bacteria

Archaebacteria

Kingdom Monera

slide6

Bacteria

Prokaryotic, single-celled organisms

No membrane-bound organelles

A very diverse group:

    • Chemoautotrophic - Purple sulfur bacteria (extremophiles)
    • Photoautotrophic - Blue-green algae (cyano)
    • Heterotrophic - E. coli
  • Asexual reproduction by binary fission (rapid)
  • Identified by metabolic needs

4,000 ? species

slide7

Medical Quick Tests

Agar, nutrients & test chemical

negative

positive

color comparison chart

slide8

rod-shaped bacteria

pneumonia

anthrax

slide9

Root Nodules

Atmospheric N2

N “fixer”

Plant roots

50% to 70% of the biological nitrogen fixation

NifTAL: Nitrogen Fixation of Tropical Agricultural Legumes

slide10

Cyanobacteria

“Blue-green algae”

Only 200 species?

In different conditionsthey grow differently

Lots of colors

Photosynthetic

7,500 ? species

slide12

Red Sea

Turkey

Iran

Egypt

Saudi

Arabia

Red Sea

Red-pigmented cyanobacteria floating on the surface

slide13

Productive Partnership: Azolla

Nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium+ fern (Azolla)

Rapid growth

Used as a “green manure”

characteristics of eukaryotic cells
Characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells
  • Membrane-bound nucleus
  • Membrane-bound organelles
  • Chromosomes consist of DNA and histone proteins and occur in pairs.
  • Multiplication of eukaryotic cells involves mitosis.
  • Reproduction is sexual and/or asexual
  • Protists, fungi, plants & animals are composed of eukaryotic cells.
slide16

Plantae Fungi Animalia

Protista

eukaryotic

Monera

prokaryotic

Kingdom Protista

slide17

Kingdom Protista

  • Eukaryotic
  • Mostly single celled; however, if multicellular, then cells not well-organized into tissues and organs (more colonies of cells).
  • A very heterogeneous group include both heterotrophic and photoautotrophic forms
  • 8 phyla
    • Lots of disagreements
  • Whittaker = “leftovers”
slide18

Kingdom Protista

  • 3 informal groups
    • Animal-like protists
    • Fungus-like protists
    • Plant-like (algal) protists
  • Misleading: some change

~ 45,000 species

slide19

Kingdom Plantae

Kingdom Animalia

Kingdom Fungi

Ciliophora

Myxomycota

Mastigophora

Chrysophyta

Sarcomastigophora

Euglenophyta

Apicomplexa

Pyrrophyta

Kingdom Protista

slide20

Animal-like Protists

Phylum Sarcomastigophora

“Amoeba”

Shell-like glass or calcium carbonate structures

Radiating projections

13,000 species

slide22

Foraminifera

Tropics = beaches

Most have symbiotic algae

slide23

Foramenifera:Globigerina ooze

Covers about 36%of the ocean floor

slide24

Animal-like Protists

Phylum Apicomplexa

“Sporozoa”

Parasitic, often 2 hosts

Resistant spore stage

5,000 species

slide25

Malaria

Mosquito & “victim”

Africa = kills 1 million children per year

Thousands of sporozoites injected

Vaccine? (US support?)Fall ‘96: field trials failed

slide26

Travel to Malarial Infected Areas

Estimate your risk

Prevent mosquitobites

Take antimalarialdrug(s)

Know the symptoms of malaria

Seek help if you suspect infection

slide27

Animal-like Protists

Phylum Ciliophora (“ciliates”)

Largest, most homogeneous

Share few characteristicswith others

Movement coordinated

Sex: 8 mating types

8,000 species

slide29

Animal-like Protists

Phylum Mastigophora(“zooflagellates”)

1 to thousands of flagellae

Some parasites

Vaccines? change protein coat!

Gave rise to animals?

1,500 species

slide31

Fungus-like Protists

475 species

Phylum Oomycota(“water molds”; mildew, blights)

Some unicellular; others consist of hyphae

Decomposers,parasites

Cell walls- cellulose

Related to algae based on cell wall composition

Named after reproductive method

No “septa”

slide35
Oomycota Reproduction: the “egg fungi”, a relatively large egg cell is fertilized by a smaller “sperm nucleus,”forming a resistant zygote.
slide36

Fungus-like Protists

Phylum Myxomycota(“slime molds”)

Bizarre

Bright colors

Moving “slime” mass

Acellular body

550 species

slide39

The Blob

Unidentified Growing Object

“Big as a platter, foamy and creamy and pale yellow.”

Died of sunstroke and nicotine poisoning

slide40

Diatoms

Plant-like Protists

  • Dinoflagellates
  • Diatoms
  • Euglena
  • Cocolithophore
  • Green algae
  • Brown Algae
  • Red algae

Dinoflagellates

Cocolithophore

Radiolarian

slide41

Plant-like Protists

Phylum Pyrrophyta (“dinoflagellates”)

Marine and Freshwater

Some live in corals

Cause “red tide”

1,100 species

slide43

Pyrocystis fusiformis

Bioluminescence

slide45

Red Tide

  • PSP (paraletic shellfish poisoning)

Gonyaulax polyhedra, Gymnodium

slide46

Biomagnification

13.8 ppm

Tertiary consumers

Secondary consumers

2.07 ppm

Primary consumers

0.23 ppm

Primary producers

0.04 ppm

The numbers are representative values of the concentration in the tissues of dinoflagellate toxin (ppm)

slide47

Plant-like Protists

Phylum Chrysophyta (“diatoms & golden algae”)

Link to green algae

13,000 species

slide49

Plant-like Protists

Phylum Euglenophyta (“euglenoids”)

800 species

slide51

Division Chlorophyta

“Green algae”

Most freshwater or terrestrial

Some marine

7,000 species

slide53

Caulerpa toxifolia

invasion – San Diego

slide54

Chlorophyta: Green Algae

Halimeda opuntia

Codium edule

Caulerpa sertularioides

Dictyosphaeria cavernosa

Caulerpa racemosa

slide55

Division Phaeophyta

“Brown algae”

Marine habitats

Example: giant kelp forests

1,500 species

slide56

Phaeophyta: Brown Algae

Padina japonica

Turbinaria ornata

Hydroclathrus clathratus

Sargassum echinocarpum

Sargassum polyphyllum

slide58

Division Rhodophyta

“Red algae”

Most in marine habitats

4,000 species

slide60

Rhodophyta: Red Algae

Hypnea chordacea

Ahnfeltia concinna

Acanthophora spicifera

Galaxaura fastigiata

Asparagopsis taxiformis

slide61

Kingdom Protista (Summary)

Varied, single celled

Freshwater, marine, parasitic

Huge number of individuals

Gave rise to plants, animals, and fungi