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Dossier II – How did the French settlers occupy Quebec? Mr. Wilson’s Art/History Class
First Contact • Jacques Cartier (1491 – 1557) was the first European to claim what is now Canada for the French crown. • He came over 3 times, and each time he tried to make a settlement, he was thwarted by the natives.
Realization • The French Quickly realized that in order to have settlements in North America, they would have to appease the Natives. • However, they Europeans never even considered “asking” the Natives for permission to settle there. • Instead, it was assumed they had no claim on the land because they had no public institutions and they were not Christian.
Samuel de Champlain • In 1608, Champlain founded Quebec city near the Native village Stadacona. • In 1934, he founded Trois-Rivieres in order to protect his fur shipments coming from the interior.
Samuel de Champlain • In 1642, near the Iroquois village of Hochelaga, Paul Chomedy and Jeanne Meance founded Ville-Marie in order to evangelize the heathen natives. • This site soon became a major trading-post because it was far inside Indian territory, and in the 18th century it was re-named Montreal. • The village of Hochelaga no longer existed.
French Relations with the Amerindians • Champlain did a much better job at trading and appeasing the Amerindians. • Famously, he was invited to go on a war campaign with the Algonquians and the Huron, against the Iroquois. • The battle took place somewhere near lake Champlain, and there was only Samuel himself, 2 other Frenchmen and 60 Algonquians.
The Battle! • They ran into 200 Iroquois and the battle ensued! • The Algonquians pointed out the Iroquois chiefs to Champlain and he fired two shots with his Arquebus, killing 2 of them while his back-up shot the third chief. • The Iroquois fled and it was a momentous occasion for the Algonquians. However, the French were consequently at war with the Iroquois for the next 100 years.
Effects on the Amerindian Population • Right after the Europeans started arriving, the Amerindian population began to suffer. • Between the fact that the Europeans completely ignored their land claims, they also carried deadly diseases to which the Natives had no protection against. • It is estimated that ½ of the Huron population died of smallpox in less then 10 years.
Effects on the Amerindian Population • Basically, the French did not believe the Natives had any rights whatsoever, and they viewed them as expendable or worse: “savage.” • This kind of behaviour is clearly represented through the actions of the French, who in one case, gave away sections of land without notifying the Natives.
Workbook Pages • Pp. 15 – 16 • (I have a beard.) • (and it is awesome.)
The Settlement of Canada • It is estimated that 30 000 French Citizens left France for the New World. • Of that 30 000, only 1/3 survived. • In 1627 the King of France mandated the “Company of One Hundred Associates” to populate the new colony. • At the time, the only people who were interested were male, and they were either fighters or businessmen.
Politics of Immigration • In order to foster the development of his new province, New France, Louis XIV targeted 3 different areas: • Soldiers • Indentured Servants (Engagés) • And the Filles du Roi
Immigration Policies • Engagés: had to work for 36 months to pay for their travel fees. • Soldiers: originally sent to contain the Iroquois, many stayed after receiving lands from Jean Talon. • Filles du Roi: often orphans, the King gave them a Dowry if they found a spouse in New France.
Birth Incentives • The new immigrants were encouraged to have large families, this in turn would also help with agriculture. • See page 19 for a list of all of the incentives! • But more then that, there were also punishments for those who did not have children. • Did they work?
Workbook! Pages 20 - 21
Portrait of the Canadian Population • 1666, Jean Talon (the intendant of New France) took a census of the population. • 3173 permanent residents • Most were Engagés and Volunteers • Names were linked through matrimony and their specific profession. • Most were participating in the Fur Trade or worked as craftsmen in the cities. • Due to the birth incentives, by 1760 the rural population had increased dramatically!
Principal Social Groups • The Secular Elite • Administration, aristocrats, bourgeois • The Church • Bishop, Secular Clergy, Regular Clergy (Monks and Nuns!) • The People • Farmers, Craftsmen, Labourers, Small merchants, Servants, Slaves
Slavery • During the French regime there were approximately 4000 slaves. • Most were Amerindians from the Panis nation, who had been captured by other Amerindians! • The last third were Africans captured in the Caribbean or in the British Colonies (Africa).
Slavery • Most worked as servants in the major cities and their owners belonged to the secular elite or to the clergy. • Slavery was legal in New France until 1833.
The Occupation of the Territory • The Seigneuries • When the French arrived here, they naturally cut agricultural land the same way they had at home. • A “Seigneurie” was granted to a Lord, or to a community. • The Seigneurie was then split up to the peasants or the workers, and they were called CENSITAIRES. • The land was split lengthwise, so that the majority of the CENSITAIRES would have access to the water.
The Occupation of the Territory • The Village and the Parish • When a Seigneurie grew large enough, they could usually afford to build a Church. • At which point the territory would be given a parish name. • By 1721 there were 82 parishes along the shores of the St-Lawrence river. • In 1760, 98% of the population of New France was of French origin. • However, this was likely to change after the arrival of the British.
Thank-You. Where’s my money? Page 24