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Process Improvement Methodologies. References (sources of graphics): Fiore, Clifford, Accelerated Product Development: Combining Lean and Six Sigma for Peak Performance , Productivity Press, NY, NY, 2005.

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process improvement methodologies

Process Improvement Methodologies

References (sources of graphics):

Fiore, Clifford, Accelerated Product Development: Combining Lean and Six Sigma for Peak Performance, Productivity Press, NY, NY, 2005.

Hamilton, Bruce, “Toast Kaizen, An Introduction to Continuous Improvement & Lean Principles,” Greater Boston Manufacturing Partnership, University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA, 2005 (DVD).

Insights On Implementation-Improved Flow: Collected Practices and Cases, Ralph Bernstein, Editor, Productivity Press, 2006.

Jacobs, Robert F. and Chase, Richard B., Operations and Supply Management: The Core, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, NY, NY, 2008.

Nahmias, Steven, Production & Operations Analysis, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, NY, NY, 2005.

Nave, Dave, “How to Compare Six Sigma, Lean, and the Theory of Constraints,” Quality Progress, March 2002, pgs 73 – 78.

comparison of three commonly adopted improvement methodologies
Comparison of Three Commonly Adopted Improvement Methodologies
  • See reference, How To Compare Six Sigma, Lean and the Theory of Constraints
  • Comparing the main points of the three improvement methodologies: Six Sigma, Lean Thinking, and Theory of Constraints
six sigma approach
Six Sigma Approach
  • Define, measure, analyze, improve, control (DMAIC) cycle
six sigma tools
Six Sigma Tools
  • Tools common to other quality programs are used in Six Sigma
  • Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)
    • Structured approach to identify, estimate, prioritize, and evaluate risk of possible failure at each stage of a process
    • Risk priority number (RPN) is calculated and is based on
      • Extent of damage resulting from failure (severity)
      • Probability failure takes place (occurrence)
      • Probability of detecting the failure (detection)
    • High RPN items are designated for improvement first
    • Example
  • Design of experiments (DOE)
    • Statistical approach used for determining the cause-and-effect relationship between process variables and an output variable
    • Approach allows for experimentation with many variables simultaneously
six sigma quality
Six Sigma Quality
  • To achieve a Six Sigma quality (according to the assumptions used by Motorola and GE) a process must produce no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities
  • Assuming a process follows a normal distribution and given design limits of ± 6 σ there would be 2 defective parts per billion (0.000000002 fraction defective)
  • Motorola’s and GE’s value of 3.4 defects per million is due to the fact that a shift of 1.5 σ in the process mean is assumed
  • An example process
    • spec = 1.250 ± 0.005, μ = 1.250, σ = 0.002, UCL & LCL = 3 σ (μ and σ estimated from sample parameters)
    • Six Sigma process: μ = 1.250 in, σ = 0.000833 in (0.005 in/6)
    • Six Sigma process with a 1.5 σ shift to the mean: μ = 1.25125 in, σ = 0.000833 in
process capability index
Process Capability Index
  • Process capability index (Cpk)
  • For (Motorola’s and GE’s) Six Sigma process
lean case study
Lean Case Study
  • Quality Parts Company