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Sedimentary Rocks. Sedimentary Rocks. Made up of different types of sediments Loose fragments of rock, minerals & organic material . Characteristics. Determined by: Source of sediment Way the sediment was moved Deposition conditions. Formation.

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sedimentary rocks
Sedimentary Rocks
  • Made up of different types of sediments
    • Loose fragments of rock, minerals & organic material
characteristics
Characteristics
  • Determined by:
    • Source of sediment
    • Way the sediment was moved
    • Deposition conditions
formation
Formation
  • Sediments are transported by: wind, water or ice
  • Source determines the composition
  • Once sediment is deposited: (2 main processes)
    • Compaction
    • Cementation
classification
Classification
  • Classified according to:
    • Processes by which they form
    • Composition of the rock
  • 3 main classes:
    • Chemical
    • Organic
    • Clastic

*Each class can contain their own groups

chemical sedimentary rocks
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
  • Forms from minerals that were once dissolved in water
  • 2 ways:
    • Minerals precipitate out of the water
    • Water evaporates leaving minerals behind, evaporites
organic sedimentary rocks
Organic Sedimentary Rocks
  • Forms from the remains of living things
  • Calcium Carbonates (CaCo3)
clastic sedimentary rocks
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
  • Rock fragments that are compacted & cemented together
  • Classified by the size of their sediments
    • Conglomerate-2mm to boulders
    • Breccia-angular & sharp edges
    • Sandstones-sand-sized grains cemented together
    • Shales-clay-size particles that are compacted & cemented together
characteristics of clastic sediments
Characteristics of Clastic Sediments
  • Physical characteristics are determined by:
    • Distance the particles move
    • Agent that moves the particles
  • 2 characteristics that are affected by transport:
    • Sorting
    • Angularity
sorting
Sorting
  • Tendency for currents of air or water to separate sediments according to size
    • Well sorted—all grains are about the same size
    • Poorly sorted—grains are all different sizes
    • In between
angularity
Angularity
  • How round & smooth or angular & uneven a sediment is can tell about the distance the sediment has traveled
  • The farther sediment travels from its source, the smoother the particles of sediment become
sedimentary rock features
Sedimentary Rock Features
  • Depositional environments—setting in which sediment was deposited
  • Common environments:
    • Rivers, lakes, deltas, beaches & oceans
  • Have different characteristics that create specific structures
7 sedimentary rock features
7 Sedimentary Rock Features
  • Stratification
  • Cross-beds
  • Graded Bedding
  • Ripple Marks
  • Mud Cracks
  • Fossils
  • Concretions
stratification
Stratification
  • Layering of rock
  • Shows when the conditions of sediment deposition change
cross beds
Cross Beds
  • Slanting layers that form within beds
  • Generally form in sand dunes or river beds
graded bedding
Graded Bedding
  • Occurs when different sizes & shapes of sediment settle to different levels.
  • Usually largest grains are on bottom & smaller on top
  • Reverse-grading can happen
ripple marks
Ripple Marks
  • Caused by the action of wind or water on sand.
  • Indicate that a beach or river was once present
mud cracks
Mud Cracks
  • Form when muddy deposits dry & shrink
  • Found on dry lake beds or flood plains
fossils
Fossils
  • Remains or traces of ancient plants & animals
concretions
Concretions
  • Form when minerals precipitate from fluids build up around a nucleus
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