ferenc friedler university of pannonia veszpr m hungary september 17 18 2012 duna palota budape st n.
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Ferenc Friedler University of Pannonia, Veszpr é m, Hungary September 17-18, 2012 Duna Palota , Budape st. Local Structures for Global Security. Outline. Introduction Recent disasters and potential risks Definitions General goals Sources of risks Security and PSE Contributions

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ferenc friedler university of pannonia veszpr m hungary september 17 18 2012 duna palota budape st
Ferenc Friedler

University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary

September 17-18, 2012

DunaPalota, Budapest

Local Structures for Global Security
  • Introduction
  • Recent disasters and potential risks
  • Definitions
  • General goals
  • Sources of risks
  • Security and PSE
  • Contributions
  • Concluding remarks
preliminary comment
Preliminary Comment

Even a cultural activity can generate global disaster.

  • Security is a global issue
  • Global solution is not available
  • Highly interdisciplinary, enormous literature
  • Process systems engineering (PSE)
  • Structure decomposition
  • Security from engineering perspective
  • Cooperation between experts of specific areas
  • „Think globally, act locally”
recent disasters
Recent disasters
  • Breakdown of Internet in Hungary (April 30, 2012)
  • 77 million user’s data stolen from Sony PlayStation Network (2011)
  • Fukushimanuclear power stationcatastrophe (2011)
  • Pakistan knocked YouTube offline for two hours (2008)
  • LA Airport 17 thousand flights grounded (2007)
  • Power grid breakdown, NY (2003)
  • Düsseldorf Airport fire (1996)
  • Ariane 5 failure (1996)
potential risks
Potential risks
  • Aircrafts are on the internet (disaster without explosives)
  • Power grid long-term breakdown
  • Cars and trucks can be directed and controlled through internet
  • Chemical plant disaster
  • Loss of strategic database
types of risks
Types of risks
      • Cultural
      • Technical
      • Helth
      • Internet
      • Environment
      • Military
      • Political
  • Comment: any injury or loss in an area can affect another areas, i.e., security is considered to be multidimensional
  • Security: the state of being free from danger or threat (Oxford Dictionary)
  • Security is the process or means, physical or human, of delaying, preventing, and otherwise protecting against external or internal, defects, dangers, loss, criminals, and other individuals or actions that threaten, hinder or destroy an organization’s “steady state,” and deprive it of its intended purpose for being
  • Security and safety will be considered together in this presentation
  • Focus is on the engineering aspects of security and safety
general goals
General goals
  • Minimize the risk of failure (crisis, catastrophe)
  • Minimize the loss of failure (crisis or catastrophe)
  • Minimize the cost of safety
sources of risks
Sources of risks
  • Natural and human activities are the sources of risks and threats
  • Types of activities:
    • transformation (e.g., data base management, production of gasoline from crude oil, earth-quake)
    • flow (crude oil in a pipe line, electricity on the network, information on the internet, cunami in the ocean)

Both transformations and flows are subject to

      • faulty,
      • unwanted or
      • unexpected

operations primarily because of design, maintenance, and operations problems.

  • Possible way of reducing the risks is to assure the quality of the activities
  • In practice, it is impossible, must not consider
  • Activities are interconnected and interdependent, therefore, risks are global
risk is exploding
Risk is exploding
  • Complexity increasing rapidly (introducing new types of services among the available activities)
  • Unnecessary activities (refrigerator on the internet)
  • Lack of quality control (speed is preferred to quality)
  • Increasing gap between the available tools (mathematical or technical)and the complexity of the security issue
  • Security is global, cannot be solved locally
  • Global solution is needed
  • The solution should be systematic based on mathematical model (instead of intuitive)
  • Global mathematical model is not solvable
  • Solution:
    • Back to the basics (G. Polya)
    • Consider process systems engineering (PSE)
security and pse
Security and PSE
  • PSE: Process Systems Engineering
  • Security from PSE perspectives
  • Initialized by the chemical industry of the 1970’s
  • Motivated by the competition (energy crisis), safety, etc.
  • Fundamental tool: global problem is solved as a sequence of smaller subproblems
  • Basis of the decomposition: structure of the system
  • Illustrative examples:
    • Systematic vs. intuitive solution
    • Structure is crutial
    • Importance of the mathematical model

Systematic vs. intuitive solution

Comp. Chem. Eng., 1995


Cost: 138.7*

* Other school’s work

Comp. Chem. Eng., 2000


Cost: 104.3**

** Our work (optimality guaranteed)

w hy structure is crutial
Why structure is crutial?

“The selection of the structure can typically reduce energy consumption by 50% and net-present cost by 35%” (Siirola, 1996)


Importance of the mathematical model


Kovacs, Z., F. Friedler, and L. T. Fan, Recycling in a Separation Process Structure, AIChE J., 39, 1087-1089 (1993)‏

axioms of combinatorially feasible structures
Axioms of combinatorially feasible structures

For PNS problem (P,R,O) a P-graph (m,o) satisfying the following five axioms is a combinatorially feasible network.

(S1) P m

(S2) xm, d-(x)=0 iff xR

(S3) oO

(S4) y0o  path [y0, yn] where ynP

(S5) xm, (,)o such that x()


Reduction of the search space

The five axioms reduce the

34 billion combinations of the operating units to

3,465 combinatorially feasible structures

for the industrial process synthesis problem of 35 op. units.

The optimal solution is included in the set of 3465 feasible structures.

pse in practice
PSE in practice
  • Example: no chemical process is develobed before it is simulated and analysed by a computer simulation program since 1980s
  • Even a chemical process is too complex to describe its behaviour by an overall mathematical model. It is decomposed:
    • local structures for the global problem
up s contribution
UP’s contribution
  • Research and Development
    • P-graph framework for PSE
    • Dynamic evaquation
    • Synthesis and analysis of integrated security systems
    • Design of optimal systems under reliability constraints
    • Supply chain management under safety requirements
    • Integrated synthesis of a process and its fault-tolerant control system
    • Sustainable process design
  • Organization: Research and Development Center for Security
  • Cooperation: Experts in specific areas are welcome
concluding remarks
Concluding remarks
  • Security is a global issue
  • Systematic methodology is required for
    • minimizing the risk
    • minimizing the loss
    • minimizing the cost
  • Unavailable
  • PSE is a potential technology
  • Key point: decomposition for local structures