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ESnet4: Enabling Next Generation Distributed Experimental and Computational Science for the US DOE’s Office of Science Summer, 2006. William E. Johnston ESnet Department Head and Senior Scientist Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory DOE Office of Science and ESnet.

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Doe office of science and esnet

ESnet4:Enabling Next GenerationDistributed Experimental and Computational Science for the US DOE’s Office of ScienceSummer, 2006

William E. Johnston ESnet Department Head and Senior ScientistLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Doe office of science and esnet
DOE Office of Science and ESnet

  • “The Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, … providing more than 40 percent of total funding … for the Nation’s research programs in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and fusion energy sciences.” (

  • The large-scale science that is the mission of the Office of Science is dependent on networks for

    • Sharing of massive amounts of data

    • Supporting thousands of collaborators world-wide

    • Distributed data processing

    • Distributed simulation, visualization, and computational steering

    • Distributed data management

  • ESnet’s mission is to enable those aspects of science that depend on networking and on certain types of large-scale collaboration

Doe office of science and esnet
ESnet Layer 2 Architecture Provides Global High-Speed Internet Connectivity for DOE Facilities and Collaborators (spring, 2006)

SINet (Japan)

Russia (BINP)


- France, Germany,

Italy, UK, etc












MAN LANAbilene







Lab DC
































Japan (SINet)

Australia (AARNet)

Canada (CA*net4

Taiwan (TANet2)


CA*net4 France

GLORIAD (Russia, China)Korea (Kreonet2



StarTapTaiwan (TANet2, ASCC)



(USLHCnetCERN+DOE funded)

ESnet Science Data Network (SDN) core


ESnet IP core







Equinix, etc.






42 end user sites


Office Of Science Sponsored (22)

NNSA Sponsored (12)

International (high speed)

10 Gb/s SDN core

10G/s IP core

2.5 Gb/s IP core

MAN rings (≥ 10 G/s)

OC12 ATM (622 Mb/s)

OC12 / GigEthernet

OC3 (155 Mb/s)

45 Mb/s and less

Joint Sponsored (3)

Other Sponsored (NSF LIGO, NOAA)

ESnet IP core: Packet over SONET Optical Ring and Hubs

Laboratory Sponsored (6)

commercial and R&E peering points

ESnet core hubs


high-speed peering points with Internet2/Abilene

Challenges facing esnet a changing science environment is the key driver of esnet
Challenges Facing ESnet - A Changing Science Environment is the key Driver of ESnet

  • Large-scale collaborative science – big facilities, massive data, thousands of collaborators – is now a key element of the Office of Science (“SC”)

  • SC science community is almost equally split between Labs and universities, and SC facilities have users worldwide

  • Very large international (non-US) facilities (e.g. LHC, ITER) and international collaborators are now also a key element of SC science

  • Distributed systems for data analysis, simulations, instrument operation, etc., are becoming common

Changing science environment new demands on network
Changing Science Environment the key Driver of ESnet New Demands on Network

  • Increased capacity

    • Needed to accommodate a large and steadily increasing amount of data that must traverse the network

  • High network reliability

    • For interconnecting components of distributed large-scale science

  • High-speed, highly reliable connectivity between Labs and US and international R&E institutions

    • To support the inherently collaborative, global nature of large-scale science

  • New network services to provide bandwidth guarantees

    • For data transfer deadlines for remote data analysis, real-time interaction with instruments, coupled computational simulations, etc.

Future network planning by requirements
Future Network Planning by Requirements the key Driver of ESnet

  • There are many stakeholders for ESnet

    • SC supported scientists

    • DOE national facilities

    • SC programs

    • Lab operations

    • Lab general population

    • Lab networking organizations

    • Other R&E networking organizations

    • non-DOE R&E institutions

  • Requirements are determined by

    • data characteristics of instruments and facilities

    • examining the future process of science

    • observing traffic patterns

Requirements from instruments and facilities
Requirements from Instruments and Facilities the key Driver of ESnet

  • Typical DOE large-scale facilities: Tevatron (FNAL), RHIC (BNK), SNS (ORNL), ALS (LBNL), supercomputer centers: NERSC, NCLF (ORNL), Blue Gene (ANL)

  • This is the ‘hardware infrastructure’ of DOE science – types of requirements can be summarized as follows

    • Bandwidth: Quantity of data produced, requirements for timely movement

    • Connectivity: Geographic reach – location of instruments, facilities, and users plus network infrastructure involved (e.g. ESnet, Abilene, GEANT)

    • Services: Guaranteed bandwidth, traffic isolation, etc.; IP multicast

  • Data rates and volumes from facilities and instruments – bandwidth, connectivity, services

    • Large supercomputer centers (NERSC, NLCF)

    • Large-scale science instruments (e.g. LHC, RHIC)

    • Other computational and data resources (clusters, data archives, etc.)

  • Some instruments have special characteristics that must be addressed (e.g. Fusion) – bandwidth, services

  • Next generation of experiments and facilities, and upgrades to existing facilities – bandwidth, connectivity, services

    • Addition of facilities increases bandwidth requirements

    • Existing facilities generate more data as they are upgraded

    • Reach of collaboration expands over time

    • New capabilities require advanced services

Requirements from case studies
Requirements from Case Studies the key Driver of ESnet

Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR)

NERSC (LBNL) (supercomputer center)

NLCF (ORNL) (supercomputer center)

ACLF (ANL) (supercomputer center)

Basic Energy Sciences

Advanced Light Source

Macromolecular Crystallography


Spallation Neutron Source

  • Biological and Environmental

    • Bioinformatics/Genomics

    • Climate Science

  • Fusion Energy Sciences

    • Magnetic Fusion Energy/ITER

  • High Energy Physics

    • LHC

  • Nuclear Physics

    • RHIC

  • There is a high level of correlation between network requirements for large and small scale science – the only difference is bandwidth

    • Meeting the requirements of the large-scale stakeholders will cover the smaller ones, provided the required services set is the same

Requirements from observing the network
Requirements from Observing the Network the key Driver of ESnet

ESnet is currently transporting 600 to 700 terabytes/monthand this volume is increasing exponentially

(approximately 10x every 46 months)

ESnet Monthly Accepted Traffic

February, 1990 – December, 2005

Terabytes / month

Footprint of sc collaborators top 100 traffic generators
Footprint of SC Collaborators - Top 100 Traffic Generators the key Driver of ESnet

  • Universities and research institutes that are the top 100 ESnet users

    • The top 100 data flows generate 30% of all ESnet traffic (ESnet handles about 3x109 flows/mo.)

    • 91 of the top 100 flows are from the Labs to other institutions (shown) (CY2005 data)

Who generates esnet traffic
Who Generates ESnet Traffic? the key Driver of ESnet

ESnet Inter-Sector Traffic Summary, Nov 05




DOE is a net supplier of data because DOE facilities are used by universities and commercial entities, as well as by DOE researchers





R&E (mostlyuniversities)

DOE sites


Peering Points



International(almost entirelyR&E sites)

DOE collaborator traffic, inc. data


Traffic coming into ESnet = Green

Traffic leaving ESnet = Blue

Traffic between ESnet sites

% = of total ingress or egress traffic

  • Traffic notes

  • more than 90% of all traffic is Office of Science

  • less that 15% is inter-Lab

Doe office of science and esnet
Network Observation – Large-Scale Science Flows by Site the key Driver of ESnet(Among other things these observations set the network footprint requirements)

ESnet Top 20 Host-to-Host Flows by Site, Sep. 2004 to Sep. 2005


Instrument – University

Nuclear Physics (RHIC)

High Energy Physics

Test traffic

Dominance of science traffic 1
Dominance of Science Traffic (1) the key Driver of ESnet

  • Top 100 flows are increasing as a percentage of total traffic volume

  • 99% to 100% of top 100 flows are science data (100% starting mid-2005)

  • A small number of large-scale science users account for a significant and growing fraction of total traffic volume


2 TB/month


2 TB/month


2 TB/month

Requirements from observing the network1
Requirements from Observing the Network the key Driver of ESnet

  • In 4 years, we can expect a 10x increase in traffic over current levels without the addition of production LHC traffic

    • Nominal average load on busiest backbone links is ~1.5 Gbps today

    • In 4 years that figure will be ~15 Gbps if current trends continue

  • Measurements of this kind are science-agnostic

    • It doesn’t matter who the users are, the traffic load is increasing exponentially

  • Bandwidth trends drive requirement for a new network architecture

    • Current architecture not scalable in a cost-efficient way

Requirements from traffic flow characteristics
Requirements from Traffic Flow Characteristics the key Driver of ESnet

  • Most of ESnet science traffic has a source or sink outside of ESnet

    • Drives requirement for high-bandwidth peering

    • Reliability and bandwidth requirements demand that peering be redundant

    • Multiple 10 Gbps peerings today, must be able to add more flexibly and cost-effectively

  • Bandwidth and service guarantees must traverse R&E peerings

    • Collaboration with other R&E networks on a common framework is critical

    • Seamless fabric

  • Large-scale science is becoming the dominant user of the network

    • Satisfying the demands of large-scale science traffic into the future will require a purpose-built, scalable architecture

    • Traffic patterns are different than commodity Internet

  • Since large-scale science traffic will be the dominant user, the network should be architected to serve large-scale science

Virtual circuit characteristics
Virtual Circuit Characteristics the key Driver of ESnet

  • Traffic isolation and traffic engineering

    • Provides for high-performance, non-standard transport mechanisms that cannot co-exist with commodity TCP-based transport

    • Enables the engineering of explicit paths to meet specific requirements

      • e.g. bypass congested links, using lower bandwidth, lower latency paths

  • Guaranteed bandwidth [Quality of Service (QoS)]

    • Addresses deadline scheduling

      • Where fixed amounts of data have to reach sites on a fixed schedule, so that the processing does not fall far enough behind that it could never catch up – very important for experiment data analysis

  • Reduces cost of handling high bandwidth data flows

    • Highly capable routers are not necessary when every packet goes to the same place

    • Use lower cost (factor of 5x) switches to relatively route the packets

  • End-to-end connections are required between Labs and collaborator institutions

Oscars guaranteed bandwidth vc service for sc science
OSCARS: Guaranteed Bandwidth VC Service For SC Science the key Driver of ESnet

  • ESnet On-demand Secured Circuits and Advanced Reservation System (OSCARS)

  • To ensure compatibility, the design and implementation is done in collaboration with the other major science R&E networks and end sites

    • Internet2: Bandwidth Reservation for User Work (BRUW)

      • Development of common code base

    • GEANT: Bandwidth on Demand (GN2-JRA3), Performance and Allocated Capacity for End-users (SA3-PACE) and Advance Multi-domain Provisioning System (AMPS) Extends to NRENs

    • BNL: TeraPaths - A QoS Enabled Collaborative Data Sharing Infrastructure for Peta-scale Computing Research

    • GA: Network Quality of Service for Magnetic Fusion Research

    • SLAC: Internet End-to-end Performance Monitoring (IEPM)

    • USN: Experimental Ultra-Scale Network Testbed for Large-Scale Science

  • In its current phase this effort is being funded as a research project by the Office of Science, Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences (MICS) Network R&D Program

  • A prototype service has been deployed as a proof of concept

    • To date more then 20 accounts have been created for beta users, collaborators, and developers

    • More then 100 reservation requests have been processed

Esnet s place in u s and international science
ESnet’s Place in U. S. and International Science the key Driver of ESnet

  • ESnet, Internet2/Abilene, and National Lambda Rail (NLR) provide most of the nation’s transit networking for basic science

    • Abilene provides national transit networking for most of the US universities by interconnecting the regional networks (mostly via the GigaPoPs)

    • ESnet provides national transit networking and ISP service for the DOE Labs

    • NLR provides various science-specific and network R&D circuits

  • GÉANT plays a role in Europe similar to Abilene and ESnet in the US – it interconnects the European National Research and Education Networks, to which the European R&E sites connect

  • GÉANT currently carries essentially all ESnet traffic to Europe

    • LHC use of LHCnet to CERN is still ramping up

Federated trust services
Federated Trust Services the key Driver of ESnet

  • Remote, multi-institutional, identity authentication is critical for distributed, collaborative science in order to permit sharing computing and data resources, and other Grid services

  • The science community needs PKI to formalize the existing web of trust within science collaborations and to extend that trust into cyber space

  • The function, form, and policy of the ESnet trust services are driven entirely by the requirements of the science community and by direct input from the science community

  • Managing cross site trust agreements among many organizations is crucial for authentication in collaborative environments

    • ESnet assists in negotiating and managing the cross-site, cross-organization, and international trust relationships to provide policies that are tailored to collaborative science

Doegrids ca one of several cas usage statistics
DOEGrids CA (one of several CAs) Usage Statistics the key Driver of ESnet

* Report as of Jun 19, 2006

Technical approach for next generation esnet
Technical Approach for Next Generation ESnet the key Driver of ESnet

  • ESnet has developed a technical approach designed to meet all known requirements

    • Significantly increased capacity

    • New architecture for

      • Increased reliability

      • Support of traffic engineering (separate IP and circuit oriented traffic)

    • New circuit services for

      • Dynamic bandwidth reservation

      • Traffic isolation

      • Traffic engineering

    • Substantially increased US and international R&E network connectivity and reliability

  • All of this is informed by SC program and community input

Esnet4 architecture and configuration
ESnet4 Architecture and Configuration the key Driver of ESnet

Possible hubs

Core networks: 40-50 Gbps in 2009, 160-400 Gbps in 2011-2012





CERN (30 Gbps)




Asia Pacific

CERN (30 Gbps)

GLORIAD (Russia and China)




Science Data Network Core






IP Core


New York

Kansas City



Washington DC





South America



San Diego

South America



IP core hubs

Production IP core (10Gbps)

SDN core (20-30-40Gbps)

MANs (20-60 Gbps) or backbone loops for site access

International connections

SDN hubs


Primary DOE Labs

High Speed Cross connects with Ineternet2/Abilene

Fiber path is ~ 14,000 miles / 24,000 km