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Geology 101. Instructor: Prof. Jack D. Farmer jfarmer@asu.edu PSF-550 965-6748 Office hours: MWF 3 pm-4 pm. TA: Aurora Hinckley (480) 965-5175 email: Aurora.Hinckley@asu.edu Office & hours: Please announce in class.

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slide1

Geology 101

  • Instructor:
      • Prof. Jack D. Farmer
      • jfarmer@asu.edu PSF-550 965-6748
      • Office hours: MWF 3 pm-4 pm
  • TA: Aurora Hinckley

(480) 965-5175email: Aurora.Hinckley@asu.edu

      • Office & hours: Please announce in class
  • Website: http://geology.asu.edu/jfarmer/g_stu_1.html

1

slide2

Today: Course Overview

  • Why are we here?
  • A few ground rules…
  • Stuff about me.
  • Tools for succeeding in Geology 101.
  • Course exams & grading.
  • Overarching goals for this course.
  • Prelude: What is Geology?
slide3

OUR COURSE’S WEBSITE

http://geology.asu.edu/jfarmer/g_stu_1.html

Note: NO “www”!!!

slide4

Read the textbook

- Cover-to-cover, see Syllabus on Web page

for weekly assignments

  • Attend lectures

- Hear topical overviews & ask questions

- Do in-class assignments & turn in & pick up HW

- Exams, quizzes & extra credit opportunities

  • In-class quizzes

- ~ Seven quizzes, each given after we complete a major

- Will be announced the class before

  • In-class exercises and homework assignments

- Exercises weekly & homeworkevery other week

GROUND RULES

slide5

Required by all students:

  • While in lecture, please DO NOT:
  • Forget to turn off cell phones
  • Read and rustle newspapers
  • Talk and have conversations
  • Sleep uncontrollably, endangering

yourself and others

  • Break ASU rules/laws (e.g. Don’t cheat,

smoke, chew tobacco, spit., etc.)

GROUND RULES

slide6

Required by all students:

  • While in the lecture, please DO:
  • Ask questions when anything is not clear
  • Engage in the discussions
  • Fully participate in in-class exercises
  • Geology is great! Have fun with it!

GROUND RULES

slide7

Top Five Reasons:

  • You absolutely LOVE geology
  • You need a science credit to graduate & think geology is easier than physics &/or need it

NOW to graduate (We feel your pain)

  • Just curious, it seemed like it might be cool
  • There was an ASU registrar computer glitch

(Again, we feel your pain)

  • You have absolutely no idea

WHY YOU ARE HERE

slide8

I’m an ASU Professor in the Dept. of Geological Sciences and a geobiologist by training and inclination. I teach 2-3 classes/year & conduct research in geobiology, with applications to planetary exploration.

  • I am Director of ASU’s Astrobiology Program
  • I love interacting with students and thrive on field work.
  • I am actively involved with exploring the planet Mars and am a member of quite a few NASA advisory committees as well as the Mars Exploration Rover team, a mission that will launch to Mars this June.
  • I teach GLG101 every 3-4 years, and in between, other courses having to do with geobiology, sedimentary processes and Astrobiology.

ABOUT ME

slide10

Geology 101 Learning Tools:

Book - Earth: Portrait of a Planet-Stephen Marshak

- An excellent, up to date review of field

- Nicely-illustrated with good study aids

2. How to study

- Read the chapters before lectures

- Review class presentations afterwards:

- Course website: http://

- Ask questions in class

- Check for terms in glossary given at end of text

- Science Toolbox sections develop specific concepts

- Interlude sections introduce larger topics

- Study guide

Use the book’s Website to:

- Reinforce concepts

- Check knowledge by taking sample quizzes

- See Geology in the news

Use thePortrait of a Planet CDROM

- Useful visualization tools

GEOLOGY 101 TOOLS

slide11

Geology 101 Learning Tools:

3. Meet with your Instructor and TA!

- During office hours

- Or, make an appointment

(see class handout for times and places)

- Use email!

4. Connect to Geology on a personal level

and try to apply what you are learning.

- Think about how the concepts you are learning

apply in your everyday life as you walk around

on planet Earth!

GEOLOGY 101 TOOLS

slide12

PRELUDE: What is Geology?

“CONTEXT” SECTION

1. Cosmology & Birth of the Earth

2. Journey to the Center of the Earth

3. Drifting continents and spreading seas

4. The way the Earth works: Plate tectonics

Patterns in nature: Minerals

“EARTH MATERIALS” SECTION

INTERLUDE A: Rock groups

6. Up from the inferno: Magma and igneous rocks

7. A surface veneer: Sedimentary rocks

8. Change in the solid state: Metamorphic rocks

INTERLUDE B: The rock cycle

Midterm I (February 28)

Our book’s chapters & course organization

GEOLOGY 101 TOOLS

slide13

“INTERNAL PROCESSES” SECTION

9. The wrath of Vulcan: Volcanic eruptions

10. The violent pulse: Earthquakes

INTERLUDE C: Seeing inside the Earth

11. Cracks, crags and crumples: Crustal deformation and mountain building

INTERLUDE D: Memories of past life: Fossils and Evolution

12. Deep time: How old is old?

13. A biography of the Earth

14. Squeezing power from a stone: Energy Resources

15. Riches in rocks: Mineral resources

Midterm 2 (April 7)

Our book’s chapters & course organization

GEOLOGY 101 TOOLS

slide14

“EXTERNAL PROCESSES”SECTION

INTERLUDE E: Ever changing landscapes and the hydrologic cycle

16.Unsafe ground: Landslides and other mass movements

17. Streams and floods: The geology od running water

18. Restless realm: Oceans and coasts

19. Hidden reserve: Groundwater

20. An envelope of gas: Earth’s atmosphere and climate

21. Dry regions: The deserts of the world

22. Amazing ice: Glaciers and ice ages

23. Global change in the Earth system

Final Exam (May 14, 2:40PM -4:30 PM)

Our book’s chapters & course organization

GEOLOGY 101 TOOLS

slide15

Geology 101 Exams:

1. There will be three Exams.

-In class, 1-hour, 100 points each

-One for each major section of course

-See web page for more information

2. Review outline

-Will be handed out before exams

-Will provide a list of topics that will be covered

3.Final Exam

-Covers last section of course, but all exams

may call on basic concepts presented earlier.

4.In class quizzes

- Multiple choice, matching

- 10-15 minutes, 10-15 points

EXAMS & GRADING

slide16

MAKE-UP EXAMS

  • There are none! Exceptions include a health problem or ASU sanctioned event, which will require written confirmation from your doctor or a presiding ASU official. Make-ups under these exceptions will be 1-hour oral exams.

TERM PAPER OPTION

  • You can substitute a 12-page term paper for one of the exams, provided it is on a topic drawn from the content for that part of the course. This must be arranged ahead of time and the topic must be approved by the instructor. The term paper will be due the day of the exam for which it is being substituted. You will still be responsible for any major topical areas that are covered from that part of the course on subsequent exams.

EXAMS & GRADING

slide17

Extra credit opportunities

4 ways to pick up extra credit points

(see web page for details)

  • 1. Optional field trip to Papago Park
  • Geology in the news
  • Geology songs/poems
  • 4. In-class demos
  • Two dates: (1) Tuesday, April 15 &
  • (2) Thursday, April 24

EXAMS & GRADING

  • Email me a short blurb drawn from geology in the
  • news during the week presented. Be prepared to
  • stand up and give a 2-3 minute summary to the class.
  • Write a rap/poem/song that conveys geologic concepts
  • for that part of course
  • Devise a practical in-class demo for a specific topic
slide18

ASU Course catalog says:

  • GLG 101 Introduction to Geology I (Physical).

GOALS FOR GLG101

Basic principles of geology, geochemistry, and geophysics. Rocks, minerals, weathering, earthquakes, mountain building, volcanoes, water, and glaciers.

slide19

But also, we have these goals:

  • To develop critical thinking skills & a basic understanding of how the science works
  • Become familiar with some of the observational methods, reasoning processes and analytical tools used by geologists to understand the Earth and its history
  • Learn the basic scientific concepts and principles- essentially the current paradigm for how the Earth and its systems interact to produce what we see.

GOALS FOR GLG101

slide20

You will be learning a new language!

  • Geology is a broad, interdisciplinary science with a rich vocabulary. The terminology we will use throughout this course will require that you learn a new language.
  • We will all work together to find ways to become familiar with this vocabulary and the ideas it is designed to convey. But more is needed than simply memorizing terms. You also need to develop an understanding of the conceptual framework that the terminology is a part of, and how the words and concepts relate to each other.

GOALS FOR GLG101

slide21

Application of this new knowledge:

  • Enrich your understanding of the planet we depend upon for our survival.
  • Broaden your perspective of the relationship between humans & their environment.
  • Become as more responsible citizen and make smart investments in your future, and the future of your children.
  • Maybe you will decide to become one of the true, the proud and the brave and go on to major in geology!

GOALS FOR GLG101

slide22

Lecture style designed to address the fact that different people learn differently:

  • Seeing/visual learning
  • Reading the written word
  • Hearing about it
  • Engaging through personal inquiry and discovery
  • Connecting what we learn in the classroom to what is out there!

GOALS FOR GLG101

slide23

What methods will we need to

succeed in geology?

  • An innate curiosity and willingness to ask questions
  • Good observational skills to recognize basic patterns and spatial relationships
  • A systematic approach to documenting, analyzing,

and predicting observations

  • An ability to visualize in 3-dimensional space, while integrating the 4th dimension, time.
  • Willingness to learn and apply basic scientific principles from other sciences (physics, chemistry, math)

GEOLOGY 101 TOOLS

slide24

Time…

Geology deals with complex historical systems that have evolved and changed over time.

Time is thus a fundamental variable in geology.

Coupledprocesses, operating over time produce all that we see.

slide25

A Prelude:

And just what is Geology?

slide27

Prelude: Box P-1 Science Toolbox Text pages 9-10

Nature of scientific inquiry

Basic Concepts:

  • Scientific method
  • Observation
  • Hypothesis
  • Test
  • Scientific “certainty”
  • Paradigms and the nature of scientific revolutions
  • Theory
slide28

Nature of scientific inquiry

Science is based on:

assumption that the natural world behaves in

a consistent & predictable manner

Goals of science:

understand underlying patterns in nature

(from careful observations/measurements)

form hypotheses that lead to predictions

slide29

Nature of scientific inquiry

Scientific method

gathering information through careful observation

to formulate hypotheses and theories

note: involves insight and creativity to break free

from conditioned accepted views

slide30

Nature of scientific inquiry

Four basic steps:

1)collect the facts (observation/measurement)

2)develop hypothesis (one or more)

3)test hypothesis

4)accept/modify/reject

slide31

Nature of scientific inquiry

Process begins with Observation!

Formulation of Hypotheses:

Construction of a tentative (untested) explanation

for something observed

Value of multiple working hypotheses

Testing hypotheses

Evaluate explanatory power.

Certainty in science and the nature of scientific proof

Science has been described as the orderly accumulation of rejected hypotheses.

slide32

Nature of scientific inquiry

Theory

- well-tested/widely accepted hypothesis that

“acceptably” predicts observed facts.

- also: explains additional observations not used

originally to form theory

- predictive power

- still testable and subject to disproof!

slide34

Prelude: Earth Systems

  • Atmosphere
  • Hydrosphere
  • Cryosphere
  • Solid Earth
  • Biosphere
slide35

Atmosphere

Blanket of gases surrounding the Earth

  • Protection from Sun’s heat & UV rays
  • Weather: due to exchange of energy
    • between Earth’s surface & atmosph.
    • between atmosph. & outer space
  • Strongly interacts w/ surface
slide36

Hydrosphere

Water portion of Earth

  • Oceans (most prominent)
  • 71% of surface of Earth
  • Streams, lakes, glaciers, underground water
  • Atmosphere
slide37

Cryosphere

Icy portion of Earth’s crust

  • Glaciers
  • Permafrost and ground ice
  • Polar ice caps
  • Frozen polar seas
slide38

Biosphere

Earth’s Ecosystems

  • Earth’s surface and subsurface to depths of a few kilometers
  • Life occupies an extreme range of environments
  • Life strongly interacts with the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the solid earth (these interactions are called ecology!)
slide39

Prelude: Earth’s internal structure

3 distinct divisions:

  • crust
  • mantle
  • core

Oceanic 0-6 km (“young”, < 180 m.y.)

Continental 0-34 km (older, up to 3.8 b.y.)

Upper 34-670 km

Lower 670-2900 km

Outer (liquid) 2900-5160 km

Inner (solid) 5160-6370 km

slide40

Solid Earth

  • Interior of the Earth is losing heat.
  • Primary source of heat: Radioactive decay
  • Heat loss drives convection, based on density differences
    • Hotter stuff is lighter and rises
    • Cooler stuff is denser and sinks.
slide41

Prelude: Plate Tectonics

Earth’s dynamic interior and crust

  • Heat loss drives plate tectonics
  • Three types of plate boundaries